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Asicpower AP9-SHA256 Review


Asicpower AP9-SHA256 Review

Bitmain is regarded as one of the most influential companies in the ASIC mining industry. It is estimated that they have manufactured approximately 53% of all mining equipment.Without including their mining profits, that’s around $140 million dollars in sales. These figures are staggering, but Bitmain’s monopoly of the Bitcoin ASIC market may come to an end, following the release of PowerAsic’s asicpower AP9-SHA256.

About the asicpower AP9-SHA256

Designed with brand new technology and boasting 94 TH/s per miner, the AP(-SHA256 is the most powerful and efficient Bitcoin miner to date.PowerAsic claims they spent $12 million dollars on research, development, and prototypes.PowerAsic also noted that their miners take advantage of ASICBOOST, an exploit of Bitcoin’s algorithm which improves mining efficiency by 20%.An unusual approach separate Powerasic’s miner to the other manufactures is the implementation of copper heat-sink claimed to have a superior thermal conductivity 69% better than aluminium. Don’t take their words for it but confirm the facts are correct on widely well known and published science documents as this one.The first batch of miners were announced and made available for order in August of 2019, with start scheduled for shipment in September, 2019.
Powerasic claims that the machines are around 40 percent more productive than the most proficient ASIC on the market, Bitmain’s Antminer S17.According to PowerAsic, they started a mining project with the aim to bring much needed competition to the market…We want to ‘make SHA256 great again.Sitting at the hefty price of $2,795.00, the powerasic AP9-SHA256 is far from affordable for the average person. Fortunately, due to the newly born rivalry between Bitmain and Powerasic, the price will probably lower with time and competition.The power supply for this unit is included and integrated in the top-box also including the controler card as a one unit. You will also get standard power cable, network cable, manual and software in the packet. In comparison to the price of the Antminer S17 , the Powerasic AP9-Sha256 is a better value.

Power Supply

The integrated PSU 3300W has a inputVoltage 220V 50Hz 30A. There are 2 fan 40mm., 1 fan 60mm to keep it cool and the power cable 3 legs following CEE 7 standard.Professional mining hardware runs optimally at 220-240V, hence why mining farms step down their own electricity supply to 220-240V. Note that 220V current is only found outside of the US – American outlets are 110V by default. Unless you want to hire an electrician, this could cause some people trouble adapt to the eficient and recomended 220V power needed, still 110V will get the job done, but they are not ideal for optimum mining performance.

Power Consumption

Thanks to the powerasic AP9-HA256’s new 7nm generation of ASIC chips, the AP9-SHA256 has become the most electrically-efficient miner on the market.Consuming merely 30.J/TB, or 2860W from the wall, the 16T is 30% more electrically-efficient than the Antminer S17.

Profitability

Powerasic ’s new ASIC technology is impressive. When compared to its closest competitor, the Antminer S17, the powerasic AP9-HA256 is the clear winner. It hashes at 94 TH/s, as opposed to the S17’s 56 TH/s. Moreover, the the AP9-HA256 consumes 30J/GH, whereas the S17 consumes 39-45J/TB.The difference in power consumption is miniscule, but when it comes to large-scale mining, the the AP9-HA256’s edge will drastically increase the profitability of a mining operation. This ASIC is profitable not only for mining on a large scale, but for the individual miner as well.Take a look at the projected mining profitability of a single miner:Note that is appears profitable even with high electricity costs ($0.1 per KW/h). With $0.05 / KW/h it’s even more profitable:📷Each powerasic AP9-HA256 will generate about $6,009 per year (calculated with 1 BTC=$10,141.5). Mining profitability may vary. You can usethis free profitability calculator to determine your projected earnings.

Is powerasic AP9-HA256 a Scam?

There is been a lot of talk on Twitter that powerasic AP9-HA256 is a scam. It appears it is not, as many users are already claiming to have received their miners.Slush, the creator ot Slush Mining Pool and the TREZOR hardware wallet, claims on Twitter that he has seen units and knows people who have had their miners delivered:

Verdict: Is The Antminer S17 Outdated?

When the first batch of Bitmain’s Antminer S17 ASICs reached the eager hands of miners, they were all the rage. The S17 was renowned as the most efficient ASIC miner on the market. Many used the S17 as the industry’s golden standard.Up until the launch of the powerasic AP9-HA256, it was the golden standard.But, now?Things have changed.Not only is the powerasic AP9-HA256 more powerful than its predecessor from Bitmain, but also more efficient, and therefore, more profitable.Ever since the announcement of the new ASIC, there was widespread speculation of its legitimacy – and rightly so.The Bitcoin community has been plagued with small, phony companies manipulating images of preexisting antminers as a ploy to hype up their fake products. Nevertheless, powerasic AP9-HA256 is taking things seriously, and their first batch of miners have lived up to expectations.The fact of the matter is, Bitmain’s most powerful and efficient antminer has been dethroned by the new reigning king of ASICs: The powerasic AP9-HA256.

Conclusion

Bitmain has dominated the ASIC market since its inception in 2013.There are a few other companies producing ASICs. However, before the creation of PowerAsics AP9-SHA256., Bitmain was the only company with a proven track record that sold efficient miners directly to the public.Powerasic AP9-HA256 has the potential to bring Bitmain’s monopoly to an end. Powerasic AP9-HA256 has a bright future ahead of them. Now that Bitmain has noteworthy competition, it will be interesting to see how it affects the market. The powerasic AP9-HA256 is the best option (for now) for anyone getting started with mining. Powerasic’s innovation should force other ASIC producers to innovate and force other companies to release new miners with better efficiency. So whether you’re buying a miner now or soon, you’re likely to benefit from the development of this new miner. For more, Visit Us: https://asicpower.net/product.php
submitted by farwa786 to u/farwa786 [link] [comments]

howmanyconfs.com - How does the security of different Proof-of-Work blockchains compare to Bitcoin?

https://howmanyconfs.com
Original post in Bitcoin here: https://np.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/biokgy/howmanyconfscom_how_does_the_security_of/

https://github.com/lukechilds/howmanyconfs.com/raw/mastescreenshot.png

How are these values calculated?

It's easy to compare blockchain hashrates when the Proof-of-Work algorithm is the same. For example if Bitcoin has a hashrate of SHA-256 @ 40 PH/s and Bitcoin Cash has a hashrate of SHA-256 @ 2 PH/s, it's easy to see that for a given period of time the Bitcoin blockchain will have 20x (40/2) the amount of work securing it than the Bitcoin Cash blockchain. Or to say that differently, you need to wait for 20x more Bitcoin Cash confirmations before an equivalent amount of work has been done compared to the Bitcoin blockchain. So 6 Bitcoin confirmations would be roughly equivalent to 120 Bitcoin Cash confirmations in the amount of work done.
However if the Proof-of-Work algorithms are different, how can we compare the hashrate? If we're comparing Bitcoin (SHA-256 @ 40 PH/s) against Litecoin (Scrypt @ 300 TH/s), the hashes aren't equal, one round of SHA-256 is not equivalent to one round of Scrypt.
What we really want to know is how much energy is being consumed to provide the current hash rate. Literal energy, as in joules or kilowatt hours. It would be great if we had a universal metric across blockchains like kWh/s to measure immutability.
However that's fairly hard to calculate, we need to know the average power consumption of the average device used to mine. For GPU/CPU mined Proof-of-Work algorithms this varies greatly. For ASIC mined Proof-of-Work algorithms it varies less, however it's likely that ASIC manufacturers are mining with next generation hardware long before the public is made aware of them, which we can't account for.
There's no automated way to get this data and no reliable data source to scrape it from. We'd need to manually research all mining hardware and collate the data ourself. And as soon as newer mining hardware comes out our results will be outdated.
Is there a simpler way to get an estimated amount of work per blockchain in a single metric we can use for comparisons?
Yeah, there is, we can use NiceHash prices to estimate the cost in $ to secure a blockchain for a given timeframe. This is directly comparable across blockchains and should be directly proportionate to kWh/s, because after all, the energy needs to be paid for in $.
How can we estimate this?
Now we have an estimated total Proof-of-Work metric measured in dollars per second ($/s).
The $/s metric may not be that accurate. Miners will mark up the cost when reselling on NiceHash and we're making the assumption that NiceHash supply is infinite. You can't actually rent 100% of Bitcoin's hashpower from NiceHash, there isn't enough supply.
However that's not really an issue for this metric, we aren't trying to calculate the theoretical cost to rent an additional 100% of the hashrate, we're trying to get a figure that allows us to compare the cost of the current total hashrate accross blockchains. Even if the exact $ value we end up with is not that accurate, it should still be proportionate to kWh/s. This means it's still an accurate metric to compare the difference in work done over a given amount of time between blockchains.
So how do we compare these values between blockchains?
Once we've done the above calculations and got a $/s cost for each blockchain, we just need to factor in the average block time and calculate the total $ cost for a given number of confirmations. Then see how much time is required on the other blockchain at it's $/s value to equal the total cost.
So to calculate how many Litecoin confirmations are equivalent to 6 Bitcoin confirmations we would do:
Therefore we can say that 240 Litecoin confirmations are roughly equal to 6 Bitcoin confirmations in total amount of work done.

Notes

$/s doesn't mean what it sounds like it means.

The $/s values should not be taken as literal costs.
For example:
This is does not mean you could do a 51% attack on Bitcoin and roll back 6 blocks for a cost of $360,000. An attack like that would be much more expensive.
The $/s value is a metric to compare the amount of work at the current hashrate between blockchains. It is not the same as the cost to add hashrate to the network.
When adding hashrate to a network the cost will not scale linearly with hashrate. It will jump suddenly at certain intervals.
For example, once you've used up the available hashrate on NiceHash you need to add the costs of purchasing ASICs, then once you've bought all the ASICs in the world, you'd need to add the costs of fabricating your own chips to keep increasing hashrate.

These metrics are measuring "work done", not security.

More "work done" doesn't necessarily mean "more security".
For example take the following two blockchains:
Bitcoin Cash has a higher $/s value than Zcash so we can deduce it has more "work done" over a given timeframe than Zcash. More kWh/s are required to secure it's blockchain. However does that really mean it's safer?
Zcash is the dominant blockchain for it's Proof-of-Work algorithm (Equihash). Whereas Bitcoin Cash isn't, it uses the same algorithm as Bitcoin. In fact just 5% of Bitcoin's hashrate is equivalent to all of Bitcoin Cash's hashrate.
This means the cost of a 51% attack against Bitcoin Cash could actually be much lower than a 51% attack against Zcash, even though you need to aquire more kWh/s of work, the cost to aquire those kWh/s will likely be lower.
To attack Bitcoin Cash you don't need to acquire any hardware, you just need to convince 5% of the Bitcoin hashrate to lend their SHA-256 hashpower to you.
To attack Zcash, you would likely need to fabricate your own Equihash ASICs, as almost all the Equihash mining hardware in the world is already securing Zcash.

Accurately calculating security is much more complicated.

These metrics give a good estimated value to compare the hashrate accross different Proof-of-Work blockchains.
However to calculate if a payment can be considered "finalised" involves many more variables.
You should factor in:
If the cryptocurrency doesn't dominate the Proof-of-Work it can be attacked more cheaply.
If the market cap or trading volume is really low, an attacker may crash the price of the currency before they can successfully double spend it and make a profit. Although that's more relevant in the context of exchanges rather than individuals accepting payments.
If the value of the transaction is low enough, it may cost more to double spend than an attacker would profit from the double spend.
Ultimately, once the cost of a double spend becomes higher than an attacker can expect to profit from the double spend, that is when a payment can probably be considered "finalised".
submitted by dyslexiccoder to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

[Hopefully] Extensive Genesis Mining Math - Looking at network difficulty: -38.6% terminal ROI (yes that's a negative)

I recently got into an argument with someone spewing referral links and touting Genesis (and BitConnect, smh) so I decided to run the numbers the best I could for his situation.
tl;dr You will have a return of investment of -38.6% (yes, negative) before your contract is cancelled because of increased network difficulty.
Methodology
The Numbers
I started w/ 16.5 TH/s because that is how much the other person said he had. At today's rates, it costs $2,175 to buy 16.5TH/s. Maintenance rate is $0.00028/GHs, so maintenance fee is $4.62 fee per day or $0.1925/hr. I inputted this CoinWarz calculator w/ the $2,175 as the hardware costs, I used power and power costs of 192.5 Watts and $0.001/Wh, which equals the same $0.1925/hr maintenance fee
Initial (read: the one Genesis wants you to look at but is actually misleading) verdict: 228 days to break even. NOTE: this is really important because some people seem to forget this. An investment in Genesis cannot be withdrawn. It's money gone. So after 228 days you haven't doubled your money or even earned $2,175, you have $0. You spent $2,175 and then you got it back. $0 total.
Now, stepping it up, I introduce the effect of network difficulty. From my methodology, we assume that the difficulty doubles every six months. That means that you're making (after maintenance fee) the full $9.54/day on day one, but at month six it's $2.46. Wait a minute, that's not half!! I made this mistake too! Of the initial $9.54, you're earning $14.16 but paying a maintenance fee of $4.62 - so after network difficulty doubles you earn $7.08/day but still have to pay the same $4.62 maintenance fee (your Gemini contract includes nothing about them ever having to provide a better maintenance fee ever).
The network difficulty continues to increase and around the 9 month mark (to be precise, once network difficulty increases 3.065 times or day 280 of your contract) you're earning $4.62/day and your maintenance fee is $4.62 and imminently your contract is cancelled. You've hit the end of the road.
Based on the virtues of linearity, if you're earning $9.54/day on day 1 and $0/day on day $280. Thus you're earning an average $4.77/day over 280 days for a total of $1,335.60, which is a net loss of $839.40 or a return of -38.6% on your initial $2,175.
Conclusion
You will not make money with Genesis. You will lose money, a lot. The only way to make money is through referral links. That makes Genesis an MLM scheme.
EDIT: formatting.
submitted by barrycl to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

So you’ve got your miner working, busy hashing away … but what is it really doing?

Posted for eternity @ https://vertcoin.easymine.online/articles/mining
Your miner is repeatedly hashing (see below for detail about a hash) a block of data, looking for a resulting output that is lower than a predetermined target. Each time this calculation is performed, one of the fields in the input data is changed, and this results in a different output. The output is not able to be determined until the work is completed – otherwise why would we bother doing the work in the first place?
Each hash takes a block header (see more below, but basically this is a 80-byte block of data). It runs this through the hashing function, and what comes out is a 32-byte output. For each, we usually represent that output in hexadecimal format, so it looks something like:
5da4bcb997a90bec188542365365d8b913af3f1eb7deaf55038cfcd04f0b11a0 
(that’s 64 hexadecimal characters – each character represents 4-bits. 64 x 4 bits = 256bit = 32 bytes)
The maximum value for our hash is:
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 
And the lowest is:
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 
The goal in Proof-of-Work systems is to look for a hash that is lower than a specific target, i.e. starts with a specific number of leading zeros. This target is what determines the difficulty.
As the output of the hash is indeterminate, we look to statistics and probability to estimate how much work (i.e. attempts at hashing) we need to complete to find a hash that is lower than a specific target. So, we can therefore assume that to find a hash that starts with a leading zero will take, on average, 16 hashes. To find one that will start with two leading zeros (00), we’re looking at 256 hashes. Four leading zeros (0000) will take 65,536 hashes. Eight leading zeros (00000000) takes 4,294,967,296 hashes. So on and so on, until we realize that it will take 2 ^ 256 (a number too big for me to show here) attempts at hitting our minimum hash value.
Remember – this number of hashes is just an estimate. Think of it like rolling a dice. A 16-sided dice. And then rolling it 64 times in a row. And hoping to strike a specific number of leading zeros. Sometimes it will take far less than the estimate, sometimes it will take far more. Over a long enough time period though (with our dice it may take many billions of years), the averages hold true.
Difficulty is a measure used in cryptocurrencies to simply show how much work is needed to find a specific block. A block of difficulty 1 must have a hash smaller than:
00000000FFFF0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 
A block of difficulty 1/256 (0.00390625) must have a hash lower than:
000000FFFF000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 
And a block of difficulty 256 must have a hash lower than:
0000000000FFFF00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 
So the higher the difficulty, the lower the hash must be; therefore more work must be completed to find the block.
Take a recent Vertcoin block – block # 852545, difficulty 41878.60056944499. This required a hash lower than:
000000000001909c000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 
The achieve finding this, a single miner would need to have completed, on average 179,867,219,848,013 hashes (calculated by taking the number of hashes needed for a difficulty 1 block - 4,294,967,296 or 2 ^ 32 or 16 ^ 8 – and multiplied by the difficulty). Of course, our single miner may have found this sooner – or later – than predicted.
Cryptocurrencies alter the required difficulty on a regular basis (some like Vertcoin do it after every block, others like Bitcoin or Litecoin do it every 2016 blocks), to ensure the correct number of blocks are found per day. As the hash rate of miners increases, so does the difficulty to ensure this average time between blocks remains the same. Likewise, as hash rate decreases, the difficulty decreases.
With difficulties as high as the above example, solo-mining (mining by yourself, not in a pool) becomes a very difficult task. Assume our miner can produce 100 MH/s. Plugging in this into the numbers above, we can see it’s going to take him (on average) 1,798,673 seconds of hashing to find a hash lower than the target – that’s just short of 21 days. But, if his luck is down, it could easily take twice that long. Or, if he’s lucky, half that time.
So, assuming he hit’s the average, for his 21 days mining he has earned 25 VTC.
Lets take another look at the same miner, but this time he’s going to join a pool, where he is working with a stack of other miners looking for that elusive hash. Assume the pool he has joined does 50 GH/s – in that case he has 0.1 / 50 or 0.2% of the pool’s hash rate. So for any blocks the pool finds he should earn 0.2% of 25 VTC = 0.05 VTC. At 50 GH/s, the pool should expect to spend 3,597 seconds between finding blocks (2 ^ 32 * difficulty / hashrate). So about every hour, our miner can expect to earn 0.05 VTC. This works out to be about 1.2 VTC per day, and when we extrapolate over the estimated 21 days of solo mining above, we’re back to 25 VTC.
The beauty of pooled-mining over solo-mining is that the time between blocks, whilst they can vary, should be closer to the predicted / estimated times over a shorter time period. The same applies when comparing pools – pools with a smaller hash rate will experience a greater variance in time between blocks than a pool with a greater hash rate. But in the end, looking back over a longer period of time, earnings will be the same.
Hashes
A Hash is a cryptographic function that can take an arbitrary sized block of data and maps it to a fixed sized output. It is a one-way function – only knowing the input data can one calculate the output; the reverse action is impossible. Also, small changes to the input data usually result in significant changes to the output value.
For example, take the following string:
“the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog” 
If we perform a SHA256 hash of this, it results in:
05c6e08f1d9fdafa03147fcb8f82f124c76d2f70e3d989dc8aadb5e7d7450bec 
If we change a single character in the input string (in this case we will replace the ‘o’ in ‘over’ to a zero), the resulting hash becomes:
de492f861d6bb8438f65b2beb2e98ae96a8519f19c24042b171d02ff4dfecc82 
Blocks
A block is made up of a header, and at least one transaction. The first transaction in the block is called the Coinbase transaction – it is the transactions that creates new coins, and it specifies the addresses that those coins go to. The Coinbase transaction is always the first transaction in a block, and there can only be one. All other transactions included in a block are transactions that send coins from one wallet address to another.
The block header is an 80-byte block of data that is made up of the following information in this order:
  • Version – a 32-bit/4-byte integer
  • Previous Block’s SHA256d Hash – 32 bytes
  • Merkle Hash of the Transactions – 32 bytes
  • Timestamp - a 32-bit/4-byte integer the represents the time of the block in seconds past 1st January 1970 00:00 UTC
  • nBits - a 32-bit/4-byte integer that represents the maximum value of the hash of the block
  • Nonce - a 32-bit/4-byte integer
The Version of a block remains relatively static through a coin’s lifetime – most blocks will have the same version. Typically only used to introduce new features or enforce new rules – for instance Segwit adoption is enforced by encoding information into the Version field.
The Previous Blocks’ Hash is simple a doubled SHA256 hash of the last valid blocks header.
The Merkle Hash is a hash generated by chaining all of the transactions together in a hash tree – thus ensuring that once a transaction is included in a block, it cannot be changed. It becomes a permanent record in the blockchain.
Timestamp loosely represents the time the block was generated – it does not have to be exact, anywhere within an hour each way of the real time will be accepted.
nBits – this is the maximum hash that this block must have in order to be considered valid. Bitcoin encodes the maximum hash into a 4-byte value as this is more efficient and provides sufficient accuracy.
Nonce – a simple 4-byte integer value that is incremented by a miner in order to find a resulting hash that is lower than that specified by nBits.
submitted by nzsquirrell to VertcoinMining [link] [comments]

New Miners: it's NOT profitable to build a rig today -- a more realistic calculator

Every day on the bitcoin irc channels, I hear people talk about the profitability of mining according to some calculator.
Lets face it: The easy money came and went a couple months ago and the gold rush is over.
I hate to see people deluded by false information, because of calculators that don't take into account the rising difficulty.
Here's a more realistic calculator for 1 GH/s if someone were to build a mining rig today, and the price remained constant. It accounts for a 25% difficulty increase each period, which is reasonable.
Link: A More Realistic Mining Calculator
Don't enable "Predict exchange rate", because that part is seriously flawed.
So please, save your money. Don't throw it away on a rig that probably won't be able to recuperate its original value.
submitted by vigilyn to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Best of Buttcoin: 2014

There's been some fantastic work done in this subreddit spreading disinformation researching, criticising, and debunking bitcoin and its sacred cows over the past year, which I would like to celebrate.
So here's some posts I saved on bitcoin-related topics. But I started saving things too late... So if you have and/or remember any great posts from the past year, dig them up and post them here.
Also, unironically, maybe someone should start a buttcoin wiki

First, three pieces of investigative journalism from Buttcoin's top minds. Here Charlie_Shrem examines the environmental impact of bitcoin mining. Key finding: For every Bitcoin transaction, 47 kilograms of CO2 is released into the atmosphere from the miners alone.
Current hash rate: 261,900,382 GH/s
Number of transactions per day: 71,331
If we assume rather conservatively that 1GH/s = 1 watt on average, then this would mean 261,900,382W is being used to power the network. We can simplify this to 261,900 kW.
Some miners can do better than 1W per 1GH/s, but many if not most do worse (i.e. 2W per 1GH/s to 10W per 1GH/s).
Going by the figure of 0.527kg CO2 / kWh found on this page,
0.527kg CO2 x 261,900 kW x 24 hours = 3,312,511.2 kg CO2 per day
Now,
3,312,511.2 kg CO2 / 71,331 transactions = 46.44 kg CO2 per transaction
For comparison, even going by this Coindesk Article, an ATM produces daily 3.162kg in CO2 emissions.
0.25kwH x 0.527kg CO2 x 24 hours = 3.162kg/day.
That means that the carbon emission for one Bitcoin transaction is equivalent to about 15 ATMs processing perhaps hundreds or thousands of transactions in a day combined.

Earlier this month Frankeh abruptly interrupted remittance-focused annular onanism by issuing a challenge: to find a single instance where bitcoin works out cheaper than a fiat alternative. In case you need to ask... Nope.
Right, there's a bunch of circlejerking happening in /Bitcoin right now so I think it's time to cut through the bullshit one way or another.
Country to send money to.
The biggest remittance markets are China, Indian and the Philippines.
I believe that since /Bitcoin often gives the Philippines as an example of successful Bitcoin remittance then it is the perfect country to use in our challenge.
Country to send money from.
According to this wikipedia article Malaysia and Canada have the biggest expat Filipino communities. 900,000 and 500,000.
So I think we should do the calculations based on both countries.
The methodology
Most people are not paid in Bitcoin. This is a fact. So for our calculation you must start with fiat, and end in fiat. We're not doing these calculations based on future utility of Bitcoin (No, neo. I'm saying...), we're doing them on the current utility.
We will also be doing a bank to bank remittance, because that is nice an constant. We don't need to take into account pick up locations Bitcoin remittance allows and pick up locations normal remittance allows. They'll vary too much.
Time will also not be taken into account, as time doesn't actually matter when it comes to remittance. Now, Bitcoiners might shout about this particular rule but let me explain my logic behind this.
A foreign worker gets paid every Friday. They start the remittance process on the Friday and regardless of if it takes 0, 3, or 5 days their family back in their home country just needs to base their life around money coming in on remitters pay day + 0, 3, or 5 days. Time taken is of no real value when it comes to remittance. All that matters is that it consistently arrives on day x.
As such, any remittance services that take over 5 working days are to be ignored for the sake of this challenge.
The amount
The amount is going to be 25% of the average wage in each of the countries. This isn't extremely scientific because it doesn't particularly need to be, and the figures are hard to come by.
So 1826.75 MYR for Malaysia and 1,398 CAD for Canada.
Don't bother complaining about these, they're just examples.
Few more ground rules
  • We're going to be going from bank/bank card to bank regardless, so we're not interested in banking fees on either side. They will be the same regardless of Bitcoin or WU (for example)
  • It must be from local fiat to foreign fiat.. You can't palm off the conversion fee to the receivers bank to keep fees down.
  • Any remittance service can be used, as long as Bitcoin is involved for people fighting the Bitcoin corner and Bitcoin isn't used for people fighting the WU (or similar) corner.
  • You must go through the process and document all the fees for each. Fees to look out for are currency spreads, transaction fees on exchanges, etc

Finally a recent thread, but commendable all the same. Hodldown presents some research leading to facts overturning years of knowledge in the bitcoin wiki. Even us shills have been laughing at bitcoin's pathetic capability of 7 transactions per second. It turns out, we were out by at least a factor of 2:
The average number of transactions per block right now is: 665 transactions
The average block size is 0.372731752748842mb.
That means the average transaction is 0.00056049887mb. Which means 1mb of transactions (the limit) is 1784 transactions
Assuming a 10 minute block (a whole other can of worms) that means there is 10*60 seconds.
1784/600 isn't 7. It's a 2.97.
Bitcoin at a technical level can not handle even 3 transactions per second.

In one of the frequent bitcoin user invasions, PayingWithActualMone outlines why the "solution in search of a problem" isn't that great of a solution to much either.
On the transaction side: the Bitcoin community seems convinced that banks are ripping them off (which imo they are not), and that it can be fixed by applying some magicsauce over a transaction that is facilitated by banks regardless. So far in practice I haven't seen any evidence of the 'fast' 'cheap' and 'easy' transactions, like most recently with Mollie. They usually compare the fees of BTC>BTC transactions to the fees of Chase Mastercard > a fucking nomad in the Sahara (with consumer protection) to prove their point. The community also seems convinced that the entire world banks the way America does, not realizing that in Europe banking has been dirt cheap for years.
And the security... oh boy the security. Half the population can't manage to go without a virus for one year (not an actual statistic), and now you expect them to secure their coins? People are dumb as shit, and software is always one step behind the exploits. We could of course create Bitcoin banks, but then there isn't much left of the original idea.
On the 'intrinsic value' side: what the hell is wrong with people. If the underlying product is no good in any aspect, why is it worth much? Right now (that's like 5 years after introduction mind you) BTC is used in 3 types of transactions: Silk Road, SatoshiDice & extremely questionable transactions. It does its job well in that aspect, and that's all it will ever be. The community just turned the technology into a giant ponzi, and they don't care as long as they get paid. The people actually doing business in Bitcoin probably don't care about the price that much.

Someone who deleted their account, on the argument that merchant adoption is a cause of the price drop:
That's just an excuse butters use for the price going down.
There's no real difference between selling bitcoin for fiat and exchanging bitcoin for goods and services. Both are a form of sale of bitcoin, an expression of preference for something other than bitcoin.
If on balance, there's more flow of bitcoin into fiat, goods or services than there is a corresponding opposing flow, then it is simply the market expressing the view that bitcoin is overvalued. Therefore, the reduction in the value of bitcoin (as valued in fiat) is a sincere expression of the market's view of what the correct price for bitcoin is.
Think of an example: A true believer has 20 BTC. He exchanges 10 BTC with Dell for a whizzy server. Dell (or another intermediary) sell the 10 BTC at an exchange in return for fiat. The market price of BTC goes down.
The price goes down, simply because a true believer cut his bitcoin holding, he got out. He thought having a server now was worth more to him than 10 tickets to the moon. Which is an expression of a negative view of the future value of bitcoin. A simple "aggressive" sale in trading parlance.

A late entry from jstolfi. A concise description of the Satoshi/Bitcoin origin story .
My understanding is that "Satoshi" had been trying to solve the technical problem of convincing a bunch of anonymous, volunteers to maintain and protect a distributed ledger, with no central authority.
He thought that he had a solution, in the form of a protocol that included PoW, miner rewards, longest chain, etc. The solution seemed to work on paper; but, as a good scientist, he started an experiment in order to check whether it would also work in practice.
For that experiment to be meaningful, it would have been enough if the coin was mined for several years only by a few hundred computer nerds, with the cooperation of some friendly pizza places and bars.
The US$ price of the coin was not important to the experiment, and it was never meant to be a weapon for libertarians, a way to buy drugs or evade taxes, a competitor to credit cards or Western Union, a sound investment or item for day-trading. All those "goals" were tacked onto it afterwards.

bob237 comments on the the absurdity of coinbase and it's touted 'rebuy' scheme,
It gets even better than that, actually. A lot of bitcoiners don't like 'losing' bitcoin, and so coinbase added a popular 'repurchase bitcoin' feature that automatically debits your bank account to replenish the BTC in your coinbase account after a purchase.
The ultimate result then is that you pay coinbase fiat, they take their cut, and then send that fiat on to the merchant. All 'bitcoins' used in the middle of the transaction are not really bitcoins, but just abstractions in coinbase's internal [off-chain] accounting system.
It's a crap version of paypal, no consumer protection and a ton of fees hidden in the spread when you buy your chuck-e-cheese tokens from them.

saigonsquare explains why ubiquitous tipping isn't the the killer app that it has been touted as, and why bitcoiners may fail to grasp this
Most people understand that there are different sorts of interaction. There are purely social interactions, there are quid-pro-quo interactions, and there are market interactions. Mixing those up causes embarrassment and insult. I wouldn't try to pay my mother-in-law ten bucks for cooking Christmas dinner, and I certainly wouldn't try to pay her ten cents. If a waiter suggests I try the raspberry tart, I won't get away with offering to bake him some cookies next week in compensation; if an office mate suggests I have a slice of her birthday cake, I'll be insulted if she brings me a bill for it. If I spend an hour helping my friend move apartments and he thanks me, I'm fine; we're friends helping each other out. If he pays me two bucks, I'm insulted; he's canceled the social nature of the interaction and instead simply bought my labor for a fraction of its going rate. I'm up two bucks but down a friend.
Ancapspergers, not particularly understanding any sort of interaction more complicated than buying a cheeseburger at Wendy's, assume that all interactions are a form of market transaction, and set pricing accordingly. Normal humans get offended by a penny shaving, because it cancels the social nature of the interaction and turns it into a market transaction--and then informs the recipient that his contribution to the transaction was of negligible value.
submitted by occasionallyrude to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

At what price will Bitcoin fail to function? My estimate: ~$100.

I'll begin with my conclusions:
If the Bitcoin network consisted solely of 'Titanium ASIC' miners, the most powerful and energy efficient mining machine I know of, then the price point at which electricity costs begins to exceed rewards is $71/BTC (based on yesterday's network figures; more on that later). More realistically though, most miners aren't running highly efficient Titanium ASICs, hence I estimate ~$100/BTC as the turning point.
I say 'fail to function' in my title, because who will continue to mine at a pure loss? It would be irrational - the rational action would be turn off the machine until the value of the rewards increases. Note: This is not the same as sunk costs in buying hardware - because in that case even if you never get back how much you paid, you're still making something.
Perhaps, you might counter, Bitcoin enthusiasts will continue to mine at a loss. Well consider this: To sustain just 1% of the current network hash rate, you would require 559 Titanium ASICs costing over one million dollars in yearly electricity cost (at $0.10/kWh) - and that's a best case scenario.
Let's assume that's the case - you have Bitcoin Enthusiasts contributing the equivalent of 559 Titanium ASICs hashing power for free out of their pocket. That's a 99% drop in hash rate. The time to a difficulty retarget is 2016 blocks, or at 10minutes/block that's 2 weeks. But if the hash rate were to drop by 99% within that two week period, then the block time would balloon out to 16.66 hours - making the block retarget ETA up to 3.8 years!
If transactions took 16.66 hours just to get a single confirmation (if they had first priority), then how would use of Bitcoin remain practically feasible? Would people still have confidence in the system and the developers for allowing this to happen? How difficult or costly would it be to launch a 51% attack?
Now, on to the calculations, and a few less optimistic alternate scenarios:
Network hash rate at time of calculation: 335,365,290.09 GH/s
335,365,290.09 GH/s / 6000GH/s = 55894.215 'Titanium ASIC' miners
55894.215 x $5.28 daily electricity cost (At $0.10/kWh) = $295121.4552/day in electricity costs
= $1776.87709485/block (avg. time of 8.67 minutes)
$1776.87709485 / 25BTC block reward = $71.04/BTC = break even point.
The above does not account for pool fees or transaction fee revenue or more importantly variance in kWh rates ($0.10/kWh is nonetheless pretty low worldwide), and hardware cost is irrelevant to this calculation.
Without doing all the math again, here's some other popular mining machines for comparison:
$113.07 (SP35 Yukon)
$193.84 (CoinTerra TerraMiner IV)
$385.89 (Antminer S1)
I've also just seen the 'Antminer S4' mentioned in /Bitcoin, so just for comparison a Titanium ASIC is almost twice as energy efficient as an Antiminer S4 (2200W vs. 4200W for 6TH/s) - it's less efficient than the SP35 Yukon.
If I've made any miscalculations here or have left anything important out, feel free to correct me.
submitted by Josh_Garza to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

The Concept of Bitcoin

The Concept of Bitcoin
https://preview.redd.it/5r9soz2ltq421.jpg?width=268&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6a89685f735b53ec1573eefe08c8646970de8124
What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is an experimental system of transfer and verification of property based on a network of peer to peer without any central authority.
The initial application and the main innovation of the Bitcoin network is a system of digital currency decentralized unit of account is bitcoin.
Bitcoin works with software and a protocol that allows participants to issue bitcoins and manage transactions in a collective and automatic way. As a free Protocol (open source), it also allows interoperability of software and services that use it. As a currency bitcoin is both a medium of payment and a store of value.
Bitcoin is designed to self-regulate. The limited inflation of the Bitcoin system is distributed homogeneously by computing the network power, and will be limited to 21 million divisible units up to the eighth decimal place. The functioning of the Exchange is secured by a general organization that everyone can examine, because everything is public: the basic protocols, cryptographic algorithms, programs making them operational, the data of accounts and discussions of the developers.
The possession of bitcoins is materialized by a sequence of numbers and letters that make up a virtual key allowing the expenditure of bitcoins associated with him on the registry. A person may hold several key compiled in a 'Bitcoin Wallet ', 'Keychain' web, software or hardware which allows access to the network in order to make transactions. Key to check the balance in bitcoins and public keys to receive payments. It contains also (often encrypted way) the private key associated with the public key. These private keys must remain secret, because their owner can spend bitcoins associated with them on the register. All support (keyrings) agrees to maintain the sequence of symbols constituting your keychain: paper, USB, memory stick, etc. With appropriate software, you can manage your assets on your computer or your phone.
Bitcoin on an account, to either a holder of bitcoins in has given you, for example in Exchange for property, either go through an Exchange platform that converts conventional currencies in bitcoins, is earned by participating in the operations of collective control of the currency.
The sources of Bitcoin codes have been released under an open source license MIT which allows to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the software, subject to insert a copyright notice into all copies.
Bitcoin creator, Satoshi Nakamoto
What is the Mining of bitcoin?
Technical details :
During mining, your computer performs cryptographic hashes (two successive SHA256) on what is called a header block. For each new hash, mining software uses a different random number that called Nuncio. According to the content of the block and the nonce value typically used to express the current target. This number is called the difficulty of mining. The difficulty of mining is calculated by comparing how much it is difficult to generate a block compared to the first created block. This means that a difficulty of 70000 is 70000 times more effort that it took to Satoshi Nakamoto to generate the first block. Where mining was much slower and poorly optimized.
The difficulty changes each 2016 blocks. The network tries to assign the difficulty in such a way that global computing power takes exactly 14 days to generate 2016 blocks. That's why the difficulty increases along with the power of the network.
Material :
In the beginning, mining with a processor (CPU) was the only way to undermine bitcoins. (GPU) graphics cards have possibly replaced the CPU due to their nature, which allowed an increase between 50 x to 100 x in computing power by using less electricity by megahash compared to a CPU.
Although any modern GPU can be used to make the mining, the brand AMD GPU architecture has proved to be far superior to nVidia to undermine bitcoins and the ATI Radeon HD 5870 card was the most economical for a time.
For a more complete list of graphics cards and their performance, see Wiki Bitcoin: comparison of mining equipment
In the same way that transition CPU to GPU, the world of mining has evolved into the use of the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) as a mining platform. Although FPGAs did not offer an increase of 50 x to 100 x speed of calculation as the transition from CPU to GPU, they offered a better energy efficiency.
A typical HD/s 600 graphics card consumes about 400w of power, while a typical FPGA device can offer a rate of hash of 826 MH/s to 80w of power consumption, a gain of 5 x more calculations for the same energy power. Since energy efficiency is a key factor in the profitability of mining, it was an important step for the GPU to FPGA migration for many people.
The world of the mining of bitcoin is now migrating to the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). An ASIC is a chip designed specifically to accomplish a single task. Unlike FPGAs, an ASIC is unable to be reprogrammed for other tasks. An ASIC designed to undermine bitcoins cannot and will not do anything else than to undermine bitcoins.
The stiffness of an ASIC allows us to offer an increase of 100 x computing power while reducing power consumption compared to all other technologies. For example, a classic device to offer 60 GH/s (1 hashes equals 1000 Megahash. 1GH/s = 1000 Mh/s) while consuming 60w of electricity. Compared to the GPU, it is an increase in computing power of 100 x and a reduction of power consumption by a factor of 7.
Unlike the generations of technologies that have preceded the ASIC, ASIC is the "end of the line" when we talk about important technology change. The CPUs have been replaced by the GPUs, themselves replaced by FPGAs that were replaced by ASICs.
There is nothing that can replace the ASICs now or in the immediate future. There will be technological refinements in ASIC products, and improvements in energy efficiency, but nothing that may match increased from 50 x to 100 x the computing power or a 7 x reduction in power consumption compared with the previous technology.
Which means that the energy efficiency of an ASIC device is the only important factor of all product ASIC, since the estimated lifetime of an ASIC device is superior to the entire history of the mining of bitcoin. It is conceivable that a purchased ASIC device today is still in operation in two years if the unit still offers a profitable enough economic to keep power consumption. The profitability of mining is also determined by the value of bitcoin but in all cases, more a device has a good energy efficiency, it is profitable.
Software :
There are two ways to make mining: by yourself or as part of a team (a pool). If you are mining for yourself, you must install the Bitcoin software and configure it to JSON-RPC (see: run Bitcoin). The other option is to join a pool. There are multiple available pools. With a pool, the profit generated by any block generated by a member of the team is split between all members of the team. The advantage of joining a team is to increase the frequency and stability of earnings (this is called reduce the variance) but gains will be lower. In the end, you will earn the same amount with the two approaches. Undermine solo allows you to receive earnings huge but very infrequent, while miner with a pool can offer you small stable and steady gains.
Once you have your software configured or that you have joined a pool, the next step is to configure the mining software. The software the most populare for ASIC/FPGA/GPU currently is CGminer or a derivative designed specifically for FPGAS and ASICs, BFGMiner.
If you want a quick overview of mining without install any software, try Bitcoin Plus, a Bitcoin minor running in your browser with your CPU. It is not profitable to make serious mining, but it is a good demonstration of the principle of the mining team.
submitted by Josephbitcoin to u/Josephbitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining & The Beauty Of Capitalism

Authored by Valentin Schmid via The Epoch Times,
While the price of bitcoin drops, miners get more creative... and some flourish.
The bitcoin price is crashing; naysayers and doomsayers are having a field day. The demise of the dominant cryptocurrency is finally happening — or is it?
Bitcoin has been buried hundreds of times, most notably during the brutal 90 percent decline from 2013 to 2015. And yet it has always made a comeback.
Where the skeptics are correct: The second bitcoin bubble burst in December of last year and the price is down roughly 80 percent from its high of $20,000. Nobody knows whether and when it will see these lofty heights again.
As a result, millions of speculators have been burned, and big institutions haven’t showed up to bridge the gap.
This also happened on a smaller scale in 2013 after a similar 100x run-up, and it was necessary.

Time to Catch Up

What most speculators and even some serious proponents of the independent and decentralized monetary system don’t understand: Bitcoin needs these pauses to make improvements in its infrastructure.
Exchanges, which could not handle the trading volumes at the height of the frenzy and did not return customer service inquiries, can take a breather and upgrade their systems and hire capable people.
The technology itself needs to make progress and this needs time. Projects like the lightning network, a system which delivers instant bitcoin payments at very little cost and at virtually unlimited scale is now only available to expert programmers.
A higher valuation is only justified if these improvements reach the mass market.
And since we live in a world where everything financial is tightly regulated, for better or worse, this area also needs to catch up, since regulators are chronically behind the curve of technological progress.
And of course, there is bitcoin mining. The vital infrastructure behind securing the bitcoin network and processing its transactions has been concentrated in too few hands and in too few places, most notably China, which still hosts about 70 percent of the mining capacity.

The Case For Mining

Critics have always complained that bitcoin mining consumes “too much” electricity, right now about as much as the Czech Republic. In energy terms this is around 65 terawatt hours or 230,000,000 gigajoules, costing $3.3 billion dollars according to estimates by Digiconomist.
For the non-physicists among us, this is around as much as consumed by six million energy-guzzling U.S. households per year.
All those estimates are imprecise because the aggregate cannot know how much energy each of the different bitcoin miners consumes and how much that electricity costs. But they are a reasonable rough estimate.
So it’s worth exploring why mining is necessary to begin with and whether the electricity consumption is justified.
Anything and everything humans do consumes resources. The question then is always: Is it worth it? And: Who decides?
This question then leads to the next question: Is it worth having and using money? Most people would argue yes, because using money instead of barter in fact makes economic transactions faster and cheaper and thus saves resources, natural and human.

_Merchants exchange goods with the inhabitants of Tidore, Indonesia, circa 1550. Barter was supplanted by using money because it is more efficient. (Archive/Getty Images)_If we are generously inclined, we will grant bitcoin the status of a type of money or at least currency as it meets the general requirements of being recognizable, divisible, portable, durable, is accepted in exchange for other goods and services, and in this case it is even limited in supply.
So having any type of money has a price, whether it’s gold, dollar bills, or numbers on the screen of your online banking system. In the case of bitcoin, it’s the electricity and the capital for the computing equipment, as well as the human resources to run these operations.
If we think having money in general is a good idea and some people value the decentralized and independent nature of bitcoin then it would be worth paying for verifying transactions on the bitcoin network as well as keeping the network secure and sound: Up until the point where the resources consumed would outweigh the efficiency benefits. Just like most people don’t think it’s a bad idea to use credit cards and banks, which consume electricity too.
However, bitcoin is a newcomer and this is why it’s being scrutinized even more so than the old established players.

Different Money, Different Costs

How many people know how much electricity, human lives, and other resources gold mining consumes or has consumed in the course of history? What about the banking system? Branches, servers, air-conditioning, staff? What about printing dollar notes and driving them around in armored trucks?
What about the social effects of monetary mismanagement of bank and government money like inflation as well as credit deflations? Gold gets a pass here.
Most people haven’t asked that question, which is why it’s worth pointing out the only comprehensive study done on the topic in 2014. In “An Order of Magnitude” the engineer Hass McCook analyzes the different money systems and reaches mind-boggling conclusions.
The study is a bit dated and of course the aggregations are also very rough estimates, but the ball park numbers are reasonable and the methodology sound.
In fact, according to the study, bitcoin is the most economic of all the different forms of money.
Gold mining in 2014 used 475 million GJ, compared to bitcoin’s 230 million in 2018. The banking system in 2014 used 2.3 billion gigajoules.
Over 100 people per year die trying to mine gold. But mining costs more than electricity. It consumes around 300,000 liters of water per kilogram of gold mined as well as 150 kilogram (330 pounds) of cyanide and 1500 tons of waste and rubble.
The international banking system has been used in all kinds of fraudulent activity throughout history: terrorist financing, money laundering, and every other criminal activity under the sun at a cost of trillions of dollars and at an order of magnitude higher than the same transactions done with cryptocurrency and bitcoin.
And of course, while gold has a relatively stable value over time, our bank and government issued money lost about 90 percent of its purchasing power over the last century, because it can be created out of thin air. This leads to inflation and a waste of physical and human resources because it distorts the process of capital allocation.

_The dollar has lost more than 90 percent of its value since the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913. (Source: St. Louis Fed)_This is on top of the hundreds of thousands of bank branches, millions of ATMs and employees which all consume electricity and other resources, 10 times as much electricity alone as the bitcoin network.
According to monetary philosopher Saifedean Ammous, author of “The Bitcoin Standard,” the social benefit of hard money, i.e. money that can’t be printed by government decree, cannot even be fathomed; conversely, the true costs of easy money—created by government fiat and bank credit—are difficult to calculate.
According to Ammous, bitcoin is the hardest money around, even harder than gold because its total supply is capped, whereas the gold supply keeps increasing at about 1-2 percent every year.
“Look at the era of the classical gold standard, from 1871, the end of the Franco–Prussian War, until the beginning of World War I. There’s a reason why this is known as the Golden Era, the Gilded Age, and La Belle Epoque. It was a time of unrivaled human flourishing all over the world. Economic growth was everywhere. Technology was being spread all over the world. Peace and prosperity were increasing everywhere around the world. Technological innovations were advancing.
“I think this is no coincidence. What the gold standard allowed people to do is to have a store of value that would maintain its value in the future. And that gave people a low time preference, that gave people the incentive to think of the long term, and that made people want to invest in things that would pay off over the long term … bitcoin is far closer to gold. It is a digital equivalent of gold,” he said in an interview with The Epoch Times.
Of course, contrary to the gold standard that Ammous talks about, bitcoin doesn’t have a track record of being sound money in practice. In theory it meets all the criteria, but in the real world it hasn’t been adopted widely and has been so volatile as to be unusable as a reliable store of value or as the underlying currency of a productive lending market.
The proponents argue that over time, these problems will be solved the same way gold spread itself throughout the monetary sphere replacing copper and seashells, but even Ammous concedes the process may take decades and the outcome is far from certain. Gold is the safe bet for sound money, bitcoin has potential.
There is another measure where bitcoin loses out, according to a recent study by researchers from the Oak Ridge Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio.
It is the amount of energy expended per dollar for different monetary instruments. One dollar worth of bitcoin costs 17 megajoules to mine versus five for gold and seven for platinum. But the study omits the use of cyanide, water, and other physical resources in mining physical metals.
In general, the comparisons in dollar terms go against bitcoin because it is worth relatively less, only $73 billion in total at the time of writing. An issue that could be easily fixed at a higher price, but a higher price is only justified if the infrastructure improves, adoption increases, volatility declines, and the network proves its resilience to attacks over time.
In the meantime, market participants still value the fact they can own a currency independent of the government, completely digital, easily fungible, and limited in supply, and relatively decentralized. And the market as a whole is willing to pay a premium for these factors reflected in the higher per dollar prices for mining bitcoin.

The Creativity of Bitcoin Mining

But where bitcoin mining lacks in scale, it makes up for it in creativity.
In theory—and in practice—bitcoin mining can be done anywhere where there is cheap electricity. So bitcoin mining operations can be conducted not where people are (banking) or where government is (fiat cash) or where gold is (gold mining)—it can be done everywhere where there is cheap electricity
Some miners are flocking to the heat of the Texan desert where gas is virtually available for free, thanks to another oil revolution.
Other miners go to places where there is cheap wind, water, or other renewable energy.
This is because they don’t have to build bank branches, printing presses, and government buildings, or need to put up excavators and conveyor belts to dig gold out of the ground.
All they need is internet access and a home for the computers that look like a shipping container, each one of which has around 200 specialized bitcoin mining computers in them.
“The good thing about bitcoin mining is that it doesn’t matter where on earth a transaction happens, we can verify it in our data center here. The miners are part of the decentralized philosophy of bitcoin, it’s completely independent of your location as well,” said Moritz Jäger, chief technology officer at bitcoin Mining company Northern Bitcoin AG.

Centralized Mining

But so far, this decentralization hasn’t worked out as well as it sounds in theory.
Because Chinese local governments had access to subsidized electricity, it was profitable for officials to cut deals with bitcoin mining companies and supply them with cheap electricity in exchange for jobs and cutbacks. Sometimes the prices were as low as 2 dollar cents to 4 dollar cents per kilowatt hour.
This is why the majority of bitcoin mining is still concentrated in China (around 70 percent) where it was the most profitable, but only because the Chinese central planners subsidized the price of electricity.
This set up led to the by and large unwanted result that the biggest miner of bitcoin, a company called Bitmain, is also the biggest manufacturer of specialized computing equipment for bitcoin mining. The company reported revenues of $2.8 billion for the first half of 2018.

Tourists walk on the dunes near a power plant in Xiangshawan Desert in Ordos of Inner Mongolia, in this file photo. bitcoin miners have enjoyed favorable electricity rates in places like Ordos for a long time. (Feng Li/Getty Images)Centralized mining is a problem because whenever there is one player or a conglomerate of players who control more than 50 percent of the network computing power, they could theoretically crash the network by spending the same bitcoin twice, the so called “double spending problem.“
They don’t have an incentive to do so because it would probably ruin the bitcoin price and their business, but it’s better not to have to rely on one group of people controlling an entire money system. After all, we have that exact same system with central banking and bitcoin was set up as a decentralized alternative.
So far, no player or conglomerate ever reached that 51 percent threshold, at least not since bitcoin’s very early days, but many market participants always thought Bitmain’s corner of the market is a bit too close for comfort.
This favorable environment for Chinese bitcoin mining has been changing with a crack down on local government electricity largess as well as a crackdown on cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin itself and mining bitcoin remain legal in China but cryptocurrency exchanges have been banned since late 2017.
But more needs to be done for bitcoin to become independent of the caprice of a centralized oppressive regime and local government bureaucrats.

Northern Bitcoin Case Study

Enter Northern Bitcoin AG. The company isn’t the only one which is exploring mining opportunities with renewable energies in locations other than China.
But it is special because of the extraordinary set up it has for its operations, the fact that it is listed on the stock exchange in Germany, and the opportunities for scaling it discovered.
The operations of Northern Bitcoin combine the beauties of bitcoin and capitalism in one.
Like Texas has a lot of oil and free gas and it makes sense to use the gas rather than burn it, Norway has a lot of water, especially water moving down the mountains due to rainfall and melting snow.
And it makes sense to use the power of the movement of the water, channel it through pipes into generators to create very cheap and almost unlimited electricity. Norway generates north of 95 percent of its total electricity from hydropower.

A waterfall next to a hydropowerplant near Sandane, Norway, Oct. 25, 2018. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)Capitalism does not distinguish between renewable and fossil. It uses what is the most expedient. In this case, it is clearly water in Norway, and gas in Texas.
As a side note on the beauties of real capital and the fact that capital and the environment need not be enemies, the water in one of the hydropowerplants close to the Northern Bitcoin facility is piped through a generator made in 1920 by J.M. Voith AG, a company from Heidenheim Germany.
The company was established in 1867 and is still around today. The generator was produced in 1920 and is still producing electricity today.

Excess Power

In the remote regions of Northern Norway, there aren’t that many people or industry who would use the electricity. And rather than transport it over hundreds of miles to the industrial centers of Europe, the industries of the future are moving to Norway to the source of the cheap electricity.
Of course, it is not just bitcoin mining, but other data and computing heavy operations like server farms for cloud computing that can be neatly packaged into one of those containers and shipped up north.
“The containers are beautiful. They are produced in the middle of Germany where the hardware is enabled and tested. Then we put it on a truck and send it up here. When the truck arrives on the outside we lift it on the container vehicle. Two hours after the container arrives, it’s in the container rack. And 40 hours later we enable the cooling, network, power, other systems, and it’s online,” said Mats Andersson, a spokesman for the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway, where Northern Bitcoin has its operations. Plug and play.

A Northern Bitcoin data container inside the Lefdal Mine data center, in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)If the cheap electricity wasn’t enough—around 5 cents per kilowatt hour compared to 17 cents in Germany—Norway also provides the perfect storage for these data containers, which are normally racked up in open air parks above the ground.
Also here, the resource allocation is beautiful. Instead of occupying otherwise useful and beautiful parcels of land and nature, the Northern Bitcoin containers and others are stored in the old Lefdal olivine mine.
Olivine is a mineral used for steel production and looks green. Very fitting. Hence also the name of the data center: Lefdal Mine.
“We take the green mineral out and we take the green IT in,” said Andersson.

Efficiency, Efficiency

Using the old mine as storage for the data center makes the whole process even more resource efficient.
Why? So far, we’ve only been talking about bitcoin mining using a lot of energy. But what for? Before you have actually seen the process in action—and it is similar for other computing operations—you cannot imagine how bizarre it is.
Most of the electricity is used to prevent the computers from overheating. So it’s not even the processors themselves; it’s the fans which cool the computer that use the most juice.
This is where the mine helps, because it’s rather cool 160 meters (525 feet) below sea level; certainly cooler than in the Texas desert.
But it gets even better. On top of the air blow-cooling the computer, the Lefdal data center uses a fresh water system to pump through the containers in pipes.
The fans can then circulate air over the cool pipes which transfer the heat to the water. One can feel the difference when touching the different pipes.
The fresh water closed circle loop then completes the “green” or resource efficiency cycle by transferring its heat to ice cold water from the nearby Fjord.
The water is sucked in through a pipe from the Fjord, the heat gets transferred without the water being mixed, and the water flows back to the Fjord, without any impact on the environment.
To top it all off, the mine has natural physical security far better than open air data centers and is even protected from an electromagnetic pulse blast because it’s underground.

_The Nordfjord near Måløy, Norway. The Lefdal data center takes the cold water from the fjord and uses it to cool the computer inside the mine. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)_Company Dynamics

Given this superlative set up, Northern Bitcoin wants to ramp up production as fast as possible at the Lefdal mine and other similar places in Norway, which have more mountains where data centers can be housed.
At the moment, Northern Bitcoin has 15 containers with 210 mining machines each. The 15 containers produce around 5 bitcoin per day at a total cost of around $2,500 dollars at the end of November 2018 and after the difficulty of solving the math problems went down by ~17 percent.
Most of it is for electricity; the rest is for leasing the containers, renting the mine space, buying and writing off the mining computers, personnel, overhead, etc.
Even at the current relatively depressed prices of around $4000, that’s a profit of $1500 per bitcoin or $7,500 per day.
But the goal is to ramp it up to 280 containers until 2019, producing 100 bitcoin per day. Again, the company is in the sweet spot to do this.
As opposed to the beginning of the year when one could not procure a mining computer from Bitmain even if one’s life depended on it, the current bear market has made them cheap and relatively available both new and second had from miners who had to cease operations because they can’t produce at low bitcoin prices.

Northern Bitcoin containers inside the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)What about the data shipping containers? They are manufactured by a company called Rittal who is the world market leader. So it helps that the owner of Rittal also owns 30 percent of the Lefdal mine, providing preferential access to the containers.
Northern Bitcoin said it has enough capital available for the intermediate goal of ramping up to 50 containers until the end of year but may tap the capital markets again for the next step.
The company can also take advantage of the lower German corporate tax rate because revenue is only recorded when the bitcoin are sold in Germany, not when they are mined in Norway.
Of course, every small-cap stock—especially bitcoin companies—have their peculiarities and very high risks. As an example, Northern Bitcoin’s financial statements, although public, aren’t audited.
The equipment in the Lefdal mine in Norway is real and the operations are controlled by the Lefdal personnel, but one has to rely on exclusive information from the company for financials and cost figures, so buyer beware.

Norway Powerhouse?

Northern Bitcoin wants to have 280 containers, representing around 5 percent of the network’s computing power.
But the Lefdal mine alone has a capacity to power and cool 1,500 containers in a 200 megawatt facility, once it is fully built out.
“Here you have all the space, power, and cooling that you need. … Here you can grow,” said Lefdal’s Andersson.

A mine shaft in the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. The whole mine will have a capacity for 1500 containers once fully built out. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)The Norwegian government was behind an initiative to bring computing power to Norway and make it one of the prime destinations for data centers at the beginning of this decade.
To that effect, the local governments own part of the utility companies which operate the power plants and own part of the Lefdal Mine and other locations. But even without notable subsidies (i.e. cash payments to companies), market players were able to figure it out, for everybody’s benefit.
The utilities win because they can sell their cheap electricity close to home. The computing companies like IBM and Northern Bitcoin win because they can get cheap electricity, storage, and security. Data center operators like Lefdal win because they can charge rent for otherwise unused and unneeded space.
However, in a recent about face, the central government in Oslo has decided to remove cryptocurrency miners from the list of companies which pay a preferential tax rate on electricity consumption.
Normally, energy intensive companies, including data centers, pay a preferential tax on electricity consumed of 0.48 øre ($0.00056 ). According to a report by Norwegian media Aftenposten, this tax will rise to 16.58 øre ($0.019) in 2019 for cryptocurrency miners exclusively.
The argument by left wing politician Lars Haltbrekken who sponsored the initiative: “Norway cannot continue to provide huge tax incentives for the most dirty form of cryptocurrency output […] [bitcoin] requires a lot of energy and generates large greenhouse gas emissions globally.”
Since Norway generates its electricity using hydro, precisely the opposite is true: No greenhouse gas emissions, or any emissions for that matter would be produced, if all cryptomining was done in Norway. As opposed to China, where mining is done with coal and with emissions.
But not only in Norway is the share of renewable and emission free energy high. According to research by Coinshares, Bitcoin’s consumes about 77.6 percent of its energy in the form of renewables globally.
However self-defeating the arguments against bitcoin mining in Norway, the political initiative is moving forward. What it means for Northern Bitcoin is not clear, as they house their containers in Lefdal’s mixed data center, which also has other clients, like IBM.
“It’s not really decided yet; there are still big efforts from IT sectors and parties who are trying to change it. If the decision is taken it might apply for pure crypto sites rather than mixed data centers, like ours,” said Lefdal’s Andersson.
Even in the worst-case scenario, it would mean an increase from ~5 cents to ~6.9 cents per kilowatt hour, or 30 percent more paid on the electricity by Northern Bitcoin, which at ~$3250 would still rank it among the most competitive producers in the world.
Coinshares estimates the average production price at $6,800 per Bitcoin at $0,05 per kilowatt hour of electricity and an 18-months depreciation schedule, but concedes that a profitable miner could “[depreciate] mining gear over 24-30 months, or [pay] less for mining gear than our estimates.”
Jäger says Northern Bitcoin depreciates the equipment over three years and has obtained very favorable prices from Bitmain, making its production much more competitive than the average despite the same cost of electricity. In addition, the natural cooling in the mine also reduces electricity costs overall.

Cheap Producer Advantage

At the moment, however, the tax could be the least of any miners worry, as the bitcoin price is in free-fall.
But what happens when the price crashes further? Suffice it to say that there was bitcoin mining when the dollar price was less than 1 cent and there will be bitcoin mining at lower prices thanks to the design of the network.
Mao Shixing, the founder of mining pool F2pool estimated 600,000 miners have shut down since the November crash in price, according to a report by Coindesk.
As it should be in a competitive system, the most energy intensive and obsolete machines are shut down first.
As with every other commodity, when the price drops, some miners will leave the market, leaving space for cheaper competitors to capture a bigger share. But with bitcoin this is a bit simpler than with copper or gold for example.
When a big copper player goes bankrupt, its competitors have to ramp up production and increase cost to increase their market share. With bitcoin, if 3,000 computers get taken off the total mining pool, they won’t be able to mine the approximately 5 bitcoin any longer.
However, because the difficulty of solving the computationally intensive cryptographic tasks of bitcoin decreases automatically when there are fewer computers engaged in the task, the other players just have to leave their machines running at the same rate for the same cost and they will split the 5 bitcoin among them.
“The moment the price goes down, our production price will go down as well,” said Jäger, a process that already happened from November to December when the difficulty decreased twice in November and the beginning of December.
This naturally favors players like Northern Bitcoin, which are producing at the lower end of the cost spectrum. They will be the ones who shut down last.
And this is a good thing. The more companies like Northern Bitcoin, and countries like Norway—even with the extra tax—the more decentralized the bitcoin system.
The more computers there are in different hands mining bitcoin, the more secure the system becomes, because it will be ever more difficult for one player to reach the 50 percent threshold to crash the system. It is this decentralized philosophy which has kept the bitcoin system running for 10 years. Whether at $1 or $20,000.
submitted by rotoreuters to zerohedge [link] [comments]

Is all mining now negative return-on-investment?

I have been closely watching the mining scene for only about 3 months, so excuse me if this sort of question is asked frequently, or is too speculative.
Is all BTC mining now underwater, with a negative ROI?
That's what it looks like to me. I initially got interested years ago, when the return was small and BTC was not worth much. I didn't mine because it seemed like a miniscule return on investment. Oh I wish I had started back then, those "worthless" BTCs would be worth a lot now.
But I started getting more interested again when that Ars Technica article on the BFL Jalapeno appeared. Holy crap, a machine that prints free money. He made hundreds of bucks in a week.
So I started checking it out. With the delays in BFL's product shipping, all the mining calculators show that any new investment in mining hardware will never break even. Difficulty is increasing so fast, that the only machines making money are already in place, and soon they won't even pay for the cost of electricity.
Now just to screw this up even further, BFL did a classic "Osborne Effect" announcement of their new Monarch board. Their existing ASIC machines are obsolete. The new 28nm machine that does not exist yet, is promised to deliver 600Gh for 350 watts, and costs $4680. I ran the numbers through the mining calculator at The Genesis Block. Unfortunately their calculator seems to be down at the moment, but I recall running numbers on a Monarch, delivered even in December, would not break even unless BTC went up to 2000 per dollar!
Now even accounting for BFL's broken promises, if I could buy mining hardware like this today and turn it on now, it would make a negative ROI. I run the numbers for every possible hardware I could buy, none of them are as cheap in dollars/Gh or Gh/watt as the Monarch. And none of them break even.
I decided to track the existing performance of mining using my dinky Mac mini's GPU. It won't mine much, and GPU mining will never break even in a network full of ASICs. But it would give a rough index of how difficulty is affecting mining. Here's a rough description of my results. At this point, it looks like mining is doubling in difficulty every month. Nobody can make money unless either BTC rises in value dramatically, or the majority of miners give up and unplug their unprofitable mining hardware.
So someone tell me if this assessment is realistic or not. At the moment, it looks like any new investment in mining hardware will result in turning every dollar of investment into 50 cents worth of BTC at most. With increasing difficulty, soon even existing mining hardware will be turning every dollar of electricity into less than a dollar worth of BTC. ROI is underwater now for new hardware, and soon will be underwater for all hardware, even advanced ASICs that haven't even shipped yet. There are only two ways that mining might ever make a profit. One is if almost everyone gives up when their miners become unprofitable. The other is if BTC goes up massively in value to like $2500/USD, which will only fuel the arms race even more.
Yeah, I know there is a big incentive to spread disinformation to convince people to drop out of mining. So don't try to BS me. Let me hear your honest assessments, or please point me in a direction where I can do research to figure this out.
submitted by nmrk to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

Question about mining..

Hey guys!
Recently, me and one of my friends got really excited about bitcoins. We have some money to spend on this, and we have chosen a device, called AntMiner S3 (around 159 dollars, with a 453 GH/s value. We calculated it on a site, and it showed, that the earning per month is around 40-45 dollars. My question is, are these values:
-Correct? -Do they mean solo or pool?
The site https://alloscomp.com/bitcoin/calculator
Thanks in advance!
submitted by Lub1k to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

What is the multisignature protocol - this explain why INX will be an anonymous coin as Monero!

What is the multisignature protocol - this explain why INX will be an anonymous coin as Monero!
What is the multisignature protocol - this explain why INX will be an anonymous coin as Monero!
https://preview.redd.it/gb8jjiva0yg11.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=bc0573826f48f45c3507d271f1fe85160592034f
Although Monero added the support for the multisignature protocol several months ago, there is still a certain lack of information online on how this technology works, so we would like to fill this gap first of all. Since the process of creating a multisignature transaction is rather complicated, we decided to focus only on its most vital aspects, including the processes of creating a wallet and exchanging keys, which we believe is enough to understand the strengths and weaknesses of this technology.
We tried to make the article more readable by ditching off most of the formulas and replacing them with schemes and illustrations, so we hope it will be useful not only to experienced engineers but to beginners as well.
On the Monero blockchain, the multisignature-related features is primarily used to allow for wallets, that have multiple users — which isn’t new, as pretty much the same solution was previously implemented by other digital currencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. In a nutshell, it allows for joint ownership of tokens which are being stored in a specific wallet. Joint ownership implies each participant has full rights to the entire amount, so there’s a reasonable limitation on its disposal: every transaction must be authorized by a certain share of participants, which is set out when the wallet is created.
The total number of owners and the approval threshold define the so-called “scheme” of a wallet. For instance, a 3/3 multisig wallet has three owners who have to unanimously approve every transaction, while in case of a 2/3 wallet each owner needs just another vote to transfer funds.
Cryptography
As is the case with most digital currencies, the Monero blockchain relies on elliptical-curve cryptography (learn more on Wikipedia). Simply put, this encryption system is valued for its relative cryptographic strength, smaller key size, and faster execution compared to many of its peers.
Every Monero wallet employs two sets of private and public cryptographic keys, each set being comprised of a “spend key” and a “view key”. Taken together, the public view key and the public spend key of a given wallet make up the address, which is used to receive funds. The same way, adding a private view key to a public spend key will create a tracking key, which your counterparts may use to track the funds being sent to your wallet (but never the other way around, so your privacy remains safe).
As you have probably guessed, the full access to a wallet is secured by a combination of its private spend and private view keys, so your private spend key must be kept in secret.
For the sake of brevity, from here on we will use uppercase letters for public keys (i.e. ‘B’ for ‘public spend key’), and lowercase letters for private keys (i.e. ‘b’ for ‘private spend key’). To help you understand the notation used below, let’s take a look at a short formula showing how a public key is derived from a private key:
https://preview.redd.it/7p0jh0dc0yg11.png?width=228&format=png&auto=webp&s=4d66dd129d33908cc6ac1653cc2133789a58f62a
where G is a fixed point on the elliptic curve. The multiplication of a private (scalar) key by G yields a public key, which is also a point on the same curve.Multisignature in Monero
The idea behind the multisig technology is pretty straightforward: having each participant to keep only a part of a wallet’s private spend key, so that transferring funds would require approval by a number of other participants.
It’s nearly impossible for any given participant to gain control over the entire private spend key, while all of them have their own unique public spend keys, as well as copies of both private and public view keys, allowing each participant to monitor the incoming funds.
Creating a multisig wallet in Monero
Currently, the Monero software supports only N/N and N-1/N schemes. To set up an N/N multisig wallet, the users need to complete a single round of calculations, with just one additional step required for the N-1/N scheme. The process of creating a 2/2 wallet is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Creating a 2/2 multisig wallet
https://preview.redd.it/x930tzti0yg11.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=c20d9b6ceca1be28f41dd62931f6ad3bcfafc947
Firstly, the participants share all their private view and public spend keys, and then calculate their respective sums. The sum of the private view keys becomes the private view key for the new wallet, with its public view key being derived from the private one. Then, the public spent key is calculated the same way. If the N/N scheme was chosen, that’s all of it. The wallet is now created.
If users opt for the N-1/N scheme, they would still have to share their private view and public spend keys with each other, but then each participant must multiply all public spend keys received by their own private spend key. Thus, a new set of private spend keys is created, which is called “multisignature keys,” as shown in Figure 2.Figure 2. Creating a 2/3 multisig wallet
https://preview.redd.it/ay5ckzhk0yg11.png?width=470&format=png&auto=webp&s=2c5b7c973221a583fd00a9f5803c9f9775608c0f
📷
You might have noticed that in the figure above, the keys of the same color have the same value. This is because such multisignature keys have one important property expressed by the following equality:
https://preview.redd.it/dprohjoq0yg11.png?width=497&format=png&auto=webp&s=bf63932e61cefcfc581c5c4a177ba8e9e880c4f1
📷
To put it simply, when multiplying a private key by a public key, the indices can be moved as one would like without affecting the result (this is, by the way, the very property of such products that underlies the elliptic curve Diffie–Hellman key exchange protocol). This means that every multisig key is shared between exactly two participants.
To calculate a public spend key, which must be the same for all participants, each of them derives a public key from their respective multisignature key, and shares the result with others. Then the public spend key is calculated by summing the distinct values of all public multisig keys.
Now the participants only have to calculate a view key, which is done the same way as for a 2/2 wallet.
So, now that the wallet is created, let’s move on to looking at how it could be used.
Monero transactions
To explain how to launch a multisig transaction, let’s briefly consider how Monero deals with funds transfer in general. In a very simplified form (not taking into account ring signatures and RingCT), it works like this:
Figure 3. Simplified representation of a transaction
https://preview.redd.it/1pd1zu4s0yg11.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=02b97a4860389c20f311cb0f5ffd3f24ba594bc5
📷
On the right are the transaction outputs, or the money which the transaction generates, and on the left are the inputs, or the money being destroyed when said transaction is complete.
So, when Alice wants to send 1 XMR to Bob, she takes 1 XMR, plus the necessary commission, from her unspent outputs, puts it to her inputs, calculates a key image for each of them, and finally generates outputs for 1 XMR and an output key for each of them.
To complete the transaction, Bob uses his private view and public spend keys to restore the output keys for each output generated by Alice, and if there’s a match between the restored and the incoming keys, he will consider this output as intended for him.
From the network’s point of view, a multisig transaction isn’t in any sense different, although it’s a little bit more complicated to initiate. It’s usually done in several steps:
Participants exchange partial key images for all known outputs; Participants re-synchronize their wallets in order to learn its accurate balance taking into account the key images; The sender prepares the transaction, signs it, and sends it over to one of his counterparts; Each subsequent participant adds its own part of the RingCT signature; The last signer completes the creation of RingCT. 
Generating key images and sharing outputs
When scanning the blockchain (i.e. during the synchronization), a wallet is unable to determine whether some of the inputs are targeting its outputs, since it does not have the data to calculate key images for them, so it’s safe to say that it only accounts for incoming transactions.
In order to run a transaction correctly, a user needs to restore the key image for each of the outputs, then synchronize with the blockchain to determine which outputs have been spent, and then proceed to generating the transaction. In Figure 4, the process of restoring key images is shown as in case of a 2/3 wallet.Figure 4. Restoring key images as in case of a 2/3 wallet
📷
https://preview.redd.it/w6a5v08t0yg11.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=37570fc67117ab8de403d6aae0c11955e4aad915
Again, to put it simply, the key image for each output is calculated by summing the distinct values of all partial key images. As can be seen from the figure above, this can be done by any two participants out of three, and, most importantly, their private keys remain undisclosed during the transaction, making it impossible for a third party to restore the complete spend key and to seize control over their funds.
With this data, the initiating party can finalize the transaction, which is then sent to all confirmed participants to generate a Ring CT signature. Then, at the final stage, the transaction is signed and broadcast to the network.
Data exchange automation
The above are procedures for exchanging key parts and key images that need to be performed either once, or after each transaction is sent. In the current release of the Monero Core Wallet, these procedures are supposed to be performed manually by exchanging the necessary data on the secure communication channels (i.e. exporting the necessary data from the wallet and sending them via messengers or otherwise).
Here is an example of the procedures required to create a 2/3 wallet and sign a transaction. Each participant performs the following commands using the monero-wallet-cli utility:
MultisigV1baCWviNomMXe271W8HW4imh8SsnNEWP2bCswQfoB9MGzNZ8FUG3e8UCNm5toKQzSQH2e8rUWUCGazaCcvej1ToCQYBMovJZYaYiYWQvzsvyWruXycZdVDSsyugjEzwQNK3FUEkug2LXiH91NmekGb7kp9gK9kuoxDDhGn1nLKXUpnXR5
Send this multisig info to all other participants, then use make_multisig threshold info1 [info2…] with others’ multisig info.
This includes the PRIVATE view key, so needs to be disclosed only to that multisig wallet’s participants:
wallet 9uKCgo: make_multisig 2 MultisigV1XQugvU4JwcwTQbKdH5qGFnavxUX54wGxNis2iN6zoLD94DahnXbyNxH1NQBp2rYRFFJCT2uiJbssHLJYEAb8X1tS5UCqTXYu3FkgRNSZt5mRNgE58iXZHPj839Pbm3ozGcXmRT6GcRMMxMjRonfYKpnPq1UyZSMN7Qr9AYin1gYyoJSh MultisigV1HVqTW8P4UNWUE8QfBaEdwDWJuXBWEPnTrKqVJiUudGG14cHREk9TKmeR9xzSs4wf4jd22mV94C2ehSViApawnpp2SpRqp19eKXLHz2JmNp7eGR6TJMt4VsDTqANRwb1FtD9weef342f5KXDRZK7iQT1MTubyHhEcFyV5aLCjjQ8owMkH
Another step is needed
MultisigxV1PQwytRuYGkB6UEVJ7v2S7q492cwNTdwySXyasToAuQQq73TvM1rBrog5bcYz5w2P6Z4jwKtzrHr7shRGo5mAShvLVbYtBdQNhQsizMb51K7iaWQB4te5mQaiB1cok84CbvA9WKnVpTJGyb7SbS7NwAgmpEhU812RTdzrdHp5sD41duYtRNW6qna5mTMYmtTjAEdKpKCvM6EwhV4ncWscpvoBfyYP
Send this multisig info to all other participants, then use finalize_multisig info1 [info2…] with others’ multisig info:
wallet 9uKCgo: finalize_multisig MultisigxV1PdeMJo5rxcWTXDJ7rbyuacBseugsn2djZKKEdwvFYVmz73TvM1rBrog5bcYz5w2P6Z4jwKtzrHr7shRGo5mAShvLUxykuq5gho7gGQBCEa3JmBaY7rNHqqUaCUs1WWQi9tojZTMmCJJ4evwJzcXEDqcAd7ShwxsJtJtXdiATs54BbBfyCbwXbnDRKAtagJF36z74KJA58NgEmnHv23ZQeePCoacM MultisigxV1RTwyE53FjKPQaAn4ZMWM5hc8C92eJndpyKby4L9HpF2TUxykuq5gho7gGQBCEa3JmBaY7rNHqqUaCUs1WWQi9tojVbYtBdQNhQsizMb51K7iaWQB4te5mQaiB1cok84CbvA928U2yJFK86jNxtMopxHkcnYjjeYfp8TAB53Y1CukBiHfL2M4EztDALXLReXjJxkMry65Jw6vVePJp2T5CW8T8QE5
Before sending a transaction, all parties must exchange partial key images:
wallet 9uKCgo: export_multisig_info ki1
Multisig info exported to ki1.
wallet 9uKCgo: import_multisig_info ki2 ki3
Height 1103873, txid f7e648915287fafca1dc67eb26267e09f92bba7ab7fd52a12600c3e6440db0eb, 2.000000000000, idx 0/0
Height 1103882, txid 2e3a5591c741c0943a47a2bcbd1ec26493158088c88308bcbfc97423ea95c49, 0.009000000000, idx 0/0
Multisig info imported
Then the wallet is re-synchronized to account for the complete keys. After having received data on outgoing payments, one of the participants can set up the transaction:
wallet 9uKCgo: transfer 9vUnTucAioDHD4ZqrFHXAgfLqrsC3LkZ6JFr5axBLhDiFMaHuEk33aqXimoZEMtQh5ibdYxcNSBw2hBZLAsCnuw4B4rBeZX 1
No payment id is included with this transaction. Is this okay? (Y/Yes/N/No): Y
There is currently a 2 block backlog at that fee level. Is this okay? (Y/Yes/N/No)Y
Transaction 1/1:
Spending from address index 0
Sending 1.000000000000. The transaction fee is 0.012000000000
Is this okay? (Y/Yes/N/No): Y
Unsigned transaction(s) successfully written to file: multisig_monero_tx
Then the generated file is transferred to another participant to be signed and broadcast to the network:
[wallet 9twQxU]: sign_multisig multisig_monero_tx
Loaded 1 transactions, for 1.031762770000, fee 0.012000000000, sending 1.000000000000 to 9vUnTucAioDHD4ZqrFHXAgfLqrsC3LkZ6JFr5axBLhDiFMaHuEk33aqXimoZEMtQh5ibdYxcNSBw2hBZLAsCnuw4B4rBeZX, 0.019762770000 change to 9uKCgopHzXrQLnph1ZNFQgdxZZyGhKRLfaNv7EEgWc1f3LQPSZR7BP4ZZn4oH7kAbX3kCd4oDYHg6hE541rQTKtHB7ufnmk, with min ring size 7, no payment ID. Is this okay? (Y/Yes/N/No): Y
Transaction successfully signed to file multisig_monero_tx, txid 1d28af64bc78d05b625c4f7af7c321d4c8943c4c2692f57aa53e303387f40db6
[wallet 9twQxU]: submit_multisig multisig_monero_tx
Loaded 1 transactions, for 1.031762770000, fee 0.012000000000, sending 1.000000000000 to 9vUnTucAioDHD4ZqrFHXAgfLqrsC3LkZ6JFr5axBLhDiFMaHuEk33aqXimoZEMtQh5ibdYxcNSBw2hBZLAsCnuw4B4rBeZX, 0.019762770000 change to 9uKCgopHzXrQLnph1ZNFQgdxZZyGhKRLfaNv7EEgWc1f3LQPSZR7BP4ZZn4oH7kAbX3kCd4oDYHg6hE541rQTKtHB7ufnmk, with min ring size 7, no payment ID. Is this okay? (Y/Yes/N/No): Y
Transaction successfully submitted, transaction <1d28af64bc78d05b625c4f7af7c321d4c8943c4c2692f57aa53e303387f40db6>
You can check its status by using the show_transfers command.
Obviously, with a great desire to use multisig wallets, it’s possible, but this approach is unlikely to suit beginners or mobile users.
Therefore, we are developing our own solution that would allow us to automate the exchange of such data without violating the privacy of the parties and the security of transactions, making multisig applications on Monero accessible to more people. Our solution is being designed to support both standard and multisig wallets, and is being run on an open server that provides the exchange and transfer of data to corresponding wallets.
More information on our contribution to Monero can be found at https://exan.tech/en/projects/monero/, as well as at the project’s page at https://wallet.exan.tech.
Resume
Currently, only a limited set of signature schemes is supported, but the developers plan to extend the list to allow for arbitrary values such as 2/5, etc. The only supported way to exchange necessary data is rather inconvenient, but thanks to the Monero’s open ecosystem the community puts high hopes on third-party solutions being developed to improve the situation.
Later in this series, we will talk about other aspects of the Monero blockchain, such as RingCT and ring signatures, wallets architecture and the libwallet library, as well as the network’s future prospects.
Please ask your questions in the comment section, suggest topics for new cryptocurrency-related articles, and subscribe to our blog to stay abreast of our upcoming events and valuable publications.
From : https://hackernoon.com/monero-multisignatures-explained-46b247b098a7
#InziderX #Exchange #ico https://inziderx.io/
submitted by InziderX to u/InziderX [link] [comments]

How to calculate Hashflare income?

Profit is calculated via the deduction of expenses from income.
The income consists of daily payouts which size depends on the hashrate. In order to calculate an estimated income using the hashrate you will need to include it in one of the calculators below (set all Power values to zero):
Main Hashflare calculator - https://bit.ly/cryptolifehack
  1. http://www.coinwarz.com/calculators/bitcoin-mining-calculator - for SHA-256
  2. http://www.coinwarz.com/calculators/litecoin-mining-calculator - for Scrypt 3. http://www.coinwarz.com/calculators/ethereum-mining-calculator - for ETHASH (set all Power values to zero)
  3. http://www.coinwarz.com/calculators/dash-mining-calculator - for X11 (set all Power values to zero)
  4. https://www.coinwarz.com/calculators/zcash-mining-calculator - for EQUIHASH (set all Power values to zero)
Next, deduct the maintenance + electricity fee of 0.0035 USD per 10 GH/s of SHA-256 and 0.005 USD per 1 MH/s of Scrypt from the income. ETHASH, X11 and EQUIHASH contracts are not subject to any fees. The sum you end up with is your estimated profit.
submitted by KolinPaul to u/KolinPaul [link] [comments]

All about hashflare.io bitcoin mining

I have been mining BTC in hashflare for about 13 months. I have already received 50 times my initial investment of small 100$ to 5000$, giving the fact that I did not reinvest and the BTC prices have risen tremendously.
I have again started mining with hash flare and I am quite sure that since the price of BTC is expected to rise to 50k - 100k in 2018, my initial investment of 600$ this time will give me close to 10k-20k$ with the investment strategy I have chosen.
If you like to join BTC mining with a minimal investment and get returns in thousands of $s then you can join via my affiliate link http://bit.ly/2maXzM0 (small commission without effecting your investment) and I will give you my tips to grow your money exponentially.
What is HashFlare?
HashFlare is a department of HashCoins, a company that develops software for cloud mining and maintains equipment in datacenters.
Hashflare provides cloud mining contracts to the buyers for 365 days. The mining starts immediately after the purchase and the output can be seen after 24hrs.
What all cryptocurrencies can I mine with Hashflare service?
HashFlare provides cloud mining on the following algorithms:
SHA-256, which is used to mine Bitcoins;
Scrypt, which is used to mine Litecoins*;
ETHASH, which is used to mine Ethereum;
X11, which is used to mine DASH.
*payouts are provided in BTC using the current exchange rate taken from cryprocurrency market.
MY PERSONAL OPINION - AS PER THE CURRENT MINING TRENDS AND PROFITABILITY, IT IS ADVISABLE TO MINE BTC.
How long does the contract last?
SHA-256 and SCRYPT contracts last 1 year(365 days) and are subject to maintenance and electricity fees (MEF).
ETHASH, EQUIHASH and DASH contracts last for 1 year (365 days) and are not subject to any fees.
How to calculate estimated profit using hashrate?
Profit is calculated via the deduction of expensesfrom income.
The income consists of daily payouts which size depends on the hashrate. In order to calculate an estimated income using the hashrate you will need to include it in one of the calculators below (set all Power values to zero):
1. Bitcoin - for SHA-256
2. Litecoin - for Scrypt
3. Ethereum - for ETHASH (set all Power values to zero)
4. DASH - for X11 (set all Power values to zero)
5. Zcash - for EQUIHASH (set all Power values to zero)
Next, deduct the maintenance + electricity fee of 0.0035 USD per 10 GH/s of SHA-256 and 0.005 USD per 1 MH/s of Scrypt from the income. ETHASH, X11 and EQUIHASH contracts are not subject to any fees.
The sum you end up with is your estimated profit. Join at http://bit.ly/2maXzM0
submitted by letsolioforlife to u/letsolioforlife [link] [comments]

HashFlare Bitcoin Calculator

https://hashflare.io/87253E49
Check out my HashFlare Microsoft Excel calculator to show how much Hashrate will mine Bitcoins each day. This is for the SHA-256 algorithm. HashFlare sells Hashrate for buyers to cloud mine Bitcoins. You give them USD or BTC and in return they sell you Hashrate, which in return produced Satoshis (lowest unit of a Bitcoin).
To use the Excel: bold cell font are user input or headers. There are 3 worksheets: HashFlare, Contract, and Bitcoins.
The HashFlare worksheet has 3 user inputs:
• First is Hash Power: input how much Hashrate to buy.
• Second is Current Balance: input how many BTC you may already have in your account.
• Third is Lowest Price BTC: the price per 10,000,000,000 Hashrate is $2.20.
a) The price varies in BTC due to the constant change in BTC/USD value. b) 10,000,000,000 Hashrate used to cost $1.50 but due to high demand the price went up and will continue so get in while prices are still low.
The Contract worksheet is informational only (no user input), what you buy is 1-year contract of Hashrate. When you consider the future of the Hashrate you bought this worksheet deducts 1-year old purchases because the contract expired scroll down to view the future. One year later, my formula automatically deducts year old purchased Hashrate.
The Bitcoins worksheet has 4 user inputs:
• First is Reward per Block: right now, when a minepool solves a block they are rewarded 12.5 Bitcoins.
a) There soon will be a halving and the reward will be 6.25.
• The second is Difficulty: as more miners mine the Blockchain the difficulty increases. a) This ensures a Billionaire will not invest a mammoth amount of money to mine a drastic number of Bitcoins and in turn becomes a Trillionaire and enslave the Earth.
• Third is BTC to USD: input an updated value to seek precision on how much 10,000,000,000 Hashrate cost or go on HashFlare website and find it for yourself.
a) The bold cell where it is one, decimal, and eight zeros is to know how various BTC amounts to USD.
Google everything you need to learn and know. To edit the Excel workbook, you must download the file first. The dates are always updated to today and it helps you to know what day how much BTC you will earn if you invest today and reup 100% of the daily payments. This does not consider external investments after the first investment. Take into consideration as time progress it is safe to assume the difficulty will increase. Therefore, this Excel is good to eye ball the work in the short run and gives a dream in the long run. Use my referral link so we both get a bonus!
12JTNXpLe3Lc6K6W5CL86zZyhY26uQyGhY Bitcoin Donation Address
https://1drv.ms/x/s!As44fpPGkuI4he9pXA0iNbq1-KXFRA
submitted by bitcoineconomics2018 to u/bitcoineconomics2018 [link] [comments]

A Question on Wallets and LiteCoin Profitibility

How do you keep the bitcoin wallet on a flash drive when the program is currently over 20 GB in size? Do you need a giant flash drive or...what? And is keeping your wallet out of reach of the internet a sure fire way to keep it from getting hacked, or is there another way to get the info?
Secondly, a question about LiteCoin- originally posted to bitcointalk:
I recently took an interest in mining but the standard Bitcoin profit calculators told me the sad news: that my PC would produce such a pitiful number of coins (like $20 worth a year, even with some simple gear) that it wasn't worth it (especially when considering electricity costs). But I happened upon a litecoin calculator and put in the same values (20 GHs/s, current difficulty, my computer's wattage, power costs, etc.) and the calc told me I could mine around $500k worth of LiteCoin (after exchanging to BTC then to USD at the current rates).
I'm assuming something's very off. Here's the calculator: http://www.coinwarz.com/calculators/litecoin-mining-calculator
I'd be getting two Butterfly Labs 10 GH/s USB blocks ($50 each) and run my AMD Radeon 7700 GPU for a little more. I have a 250 watt PC and power's about 0.12 a kW. What's broken here, or can I really get rich on this alt currency?
submitted by mrmayge to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

HashFlare Bitcoin Calculator

HashFlare Bitcoin Calculator
https://hashflare.io/87253E49
Check out my HashFlare Microsoft Excel calculator to show how much Hashrate will mine Bitcoins each day. This is for the SHA-256 algorithm. HashFlare sells Hashrate for buyers to cloud mine Bitcoins. You give them USD or BTC and in return they sell you Hashrate, which in return produced Satoshis (lowest unit of a Bitcoin).
To use the Excel: bold cell font are user input or headers. There are 3 worksheets: HashFlare, Contract, and Bitcoins.
The HashFlare worksheet has 3 user inputs:
• First is Hash Power: input how much Hashrate to buy.
• Second is Current Balance: input how many BTC you may already have in your account.
• Third is Lowest Price BTC: the price per 10,000,000,000 Hashrate is $2.20.
a) The price varies in BTC due to the constant change in BTC/USD value. b) 10,000,000,000 Hashrate used to cost $1.50 but due to high demand the price went up and will continue so get in while prices are still low.
The Contract worksheet is informational only (no user input), what you buy is 1-year contract of Hashrate. When you consider the future of the Hashrate you bought this worksheet deducts 1-year old purchases because the contract expired scroll down to view the future. One year later, my formula automatically deducts year old purchased Hashrate.
The Bitcoins worksheet has 4 user inputs:
• First is Reward per Block: right now, when a minepool solves a block they are rewarded 12.5 Bitcoins.
a) There soon will be a halving and the reward will be 6.25.
• The second is Difficulty: as more miners mine the Blockchain the difficulty increases. a) This ensures a Billionaire will not invest a mammoth amount of money to mine a drastic number of Bitcoins and in turn becomes a Trillionaire and enslave the Earth.
• Third is BTC to USD: input an updated value to seek precision on how much 10,000,000,000 Hashrate cost or go on HashFlare website and find it for yourself.
a) The bold cell where it is one, decimal, and eight zeros is to know how various BTC amounts to USD.
Google everything you need to learn and know. To edit the Excel workbook, you must download the file first. The dates are always updated to today and it helps you to know what day how much BTC you will earn if you invest today and reup 100% of the daily payments. This does not consider external investments after the first investment. Take into consideration as time progress it is safe to assume the difficulty will increase. Therefore, this Excel is good to eye ball the work in the short run and gives a dream in the long run. Use my referral link so we both get a bonus!
12JTNXpLe3Lc6K6W5CL86zZyhY26uQyGhY Bitcoin Donation Address
https://1drv.ms/x/s!As44fpPGkuI4he9pXA0iNbq1-KXFRA
submitted by bitcoineconomics2018 to u/bitcoineconomics2018 [link] [comments]

[X-post from /r/cryptocurrency]: [Hopefully] Extensive Genesis Mining Math - Looking at network difficulty: -38.6% terminal ROI (yes that's a negative)

I recently got into an argument with someone spewing referral links and touting Genesis (and BitConnect, smh) so I decided to run the numbers the best I could for his situation.
tl;dr You will have a return of investment of -38.6% (yes, negative) before your contract is cancelled because of increased network difficulty.
Methodology
The Numbers
I started w/ 16.5 TH/s because that is how much the other person said he had. At today's rates, it costs $2,175 to buy 16.5TH/s. Maintenance rate is $0.00028/GHs, so maintenance fee is $4.62 fee per day or $0.1925/hr. I inputted this CoinWarz calculator w/ the $2,175 as the hardware costs, I used power and power costs of 192.5 Watts and $0.001/Wh, which equals the same $0.1925/hr maintenance fee
Initial (read: the one Genesis wants you to look at but is actually misleading) verdict: 228 days to break even. NOTE: this is really important because some people seem to forget this. An investment in Genesis cannot be withdrawn. It's money gone. So after 228 days you haven't doubled your money or even earned $2,175, you have $0. You spent $2,175 and then you got it back. $0 total.
Now, stepping it up, I introduce the effect of network difficulty. From my methodology, we assume that the difficulty doubles every six months. That means that you're making (after maintenance fee) the full $9.54/day on day one, but at month six it's $2.46. Wait a minute, that's not half!! I made this mistake too! Of the initial $9.54, you're earning $14.16 but paying a maintenance fee of $4.62 - so after network difficulty doubles you earn $7.08/day but still have to pay the same $4.62 maintenance fee (your Gemini contract includes nothing about them ever having to provide a better maintenance fee ever).
The network difficulty continues to increase and around the 9 month mark (to be precise, once network difficulty increases 3.065 times or day 280 of your contract) you're earning $4.62/day and your maintenance fee is $4.62 and imminently your contract is cancelled. You've hit the end of the road.
Based on the virtues of linearity, if you're earning $9.54/day on day 1 and $0/day on day $280. Thus you're earning an average $4.77/day over 280 days for a total of $1,335.60, which is a net loss of $839.40 or a return of -38.6% on your initial $2,175.
Conclusion
You will not make money with Genesis. You will lose money, a lot. The only way to make money is through referral links. That makes Genesis an MLM scheme.
submitted by barrycl to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The economics and maths behind the creation of Ethereums 2 chains and why it is improbable bitcoin will suffer the same fate.

Some of the most influential people in the space continuously say that bitcoin can create two sustainable chains without a hardcoded difficulty adjustment. I believe that this is economically improbable. In this post I hope to give everyone a clear understanding as to why I believe this. The method employed here could and I think should be used as a framework for analysis of any blockchain technology to deduce its consensus viability.
The only reason this analysis is required is due to such forks occurring in other coins that were still progressing through the value bootstrapping phase. Key economic variables were overlooked. The most important variables being the time until the difficulty adjustment and the max and minimum difficulty adjustment. These are the variables that I believe are critical to preventing a sustainable fork and the cause of the most notorious fork, Ethereum Classic.
It is important to note that the circumstances behind the Ethereum fork where special, bitcoin is facing an entirely different problem. Ethereums immutability was in question, Bitcoin simply needs to go through one of two protocol upgrades proposals. Ethereum also has a very different incentive model that allows it to be taken advantage of by a miniscule minority resulting in the creation of a "sustainable" minority fork (ignoring possible reorg attacks).
So let's determine what it took to create the Ethereum Classic fork.
At the time of the fork:
  1. Ethereum had a hashrate of 59TH/s
  2. You could buy 20MH/s for ~£100 ($120).
  3. Blocks have a target of being created every 13 seconds
  4. Ethereum adjusts difficulty every block with a max downward adjustment of 99/2048 if over 100 seconds between blocks.
  5. A sustainable fork was created in around 5 days.
  6. The hacker had a $150 Million bounty to claim
The target here is to come up with a dollar amount that will result in a sustainable fork within 5 days. Using the 6 points above we have all the information we need to deduce if it is economically possible for the hacker to produce a sustainable fork to claim the DAO bounty.
We can calculate the time to the next difficulty adjustment using the formula:
(Blocktime * Original Hashrate) / time to solve = Hashrate Needed 
Thus the hashrate it will take to get to the first difficulty adjustment within 5 days is simply:
(14 * 59,000,000,000,000)/ (5 * 24 * 60 * 60) = 1.775 GH/s 
Once the first difficulty adjustment has been reached the time to get to the next is trivially deduced for a given hashrate by multiplying the time by the amount the difficulty has been adjusted:
time * difficulty adjustment factor = time to next difficulty adjustment 
Thus
Difficulty adjustment 2 (5 * 24 * 60 * 60) * 99/2048 = 20,882 seconds = 5.8 hours Difficulty adjustment 3 (20,882) * 99/2048 = 1,009 seconds = 16.82 minutes Difficulty adjustment 4 (1,009) * 99/2048 = 48 seconds Difficulty adjustment 5 within 100 seconds 
The cost for hardware that is capable of 1.7GH/s at the time of the fork was ~$20,000. The conclusion here is that within 6 days and with less than 0.0000029% of the hashrate you can fork ETH for a very reasonable cost. When you also factor in that there is at least one person with $150 million to defend, this cost is insignificant and if it works could yield a 7,500X return.
At least one person wanted to make a rig this big, before the DAO.
This is not probable with bitcoin because it takes 2016 blocks or 1,209,600 seconds to get to the difficulty adjustment, compared to 13 seconds. While also limiting the maximum difficulty adjustment to 0.25 of the original difficulty compared to ~0.04.
If anyone is interested I have done a much more in depth analysis of the bitcoin blockchain. What I hope to show everyone with a further analysis is that Bitcoin will not create two chains is improbable. I calculated it for all forking hashrates using current hashrate costs, difficulty, block generation time, block reward and network activity. This results in a cost that is required to fork the chain and thus probability of this occurring. It assumes miners are profit motivated (as the white paper assumes they are). It currently has no write up, but I have done the maths. If enough of you are interested I'll put the work in to write it up and explain my thinking so that this "Bitcoin will create 2 chains" argument can be put to rest... or at least have some numbers behind it.
submitted by 2ndEntropy to btc [link] [comments]

(({{{Bitcoin$Free}})) Best. Cryptocurrency. Trading. Platform.

[+#Bitcoin$Free}}))Best Cryptocurrency Trading Platform THE BITCOIN MANIA Trading on crypto currencies, is the new trend taking over of the digital money market. Bitcoin, the crypto currency is breaking records with 4,500% growth in the last year, proving that the future is in crypto currencies. BITCOIN TRAINING DAY Join our risk free "Bitcoin Club Marathon", where you will get a demo account to perfect your trading skills. Here you receive an opportunity to learn from others without risking your money. Crypto Signals Crypto currencies exchange market could be highly fluctuant, presenting numerous opportunities 24/7. The club provides you Signals system that will send you alerts whenever an opportunity arises.
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submitted by besterse to BestCryptoPlatform [link] [comments]

Chill everyone, let's talk bitcoin internals, fundamentals and what it means for price.

So I've been watching bitcoin for a couple weeks, and i got a bit of my own dough into it.
Of recent everybody seems obsessed with the vast accumulation of wealth in the hands of few, and the hordes of panicky upstarts trying to get in, who might get screwed by falling prices (for instance see this lovely post
Hyperbole
Now I'm not saying that the doomsday scenario the prophets are peddling is impossible. But it's about as possible as the wonderland prophets who're hoping for a 100'0000% return.
Trojans
On a related note, yeah some trojan started targeting wallet.dat, surprise surprise. Incidentally, that the same machine you're making VISA payments from and operate your e-banking? You worried about that too? Not? Well I don't see VISA shares falling every time somebody infects himself with a keylogger.
Pricing
So I thought a fair bit about where prices are going to go, and why, and I asked a lot of people and talked this over, and after this, a few things remain that give some direction.
A price of a security (like bitcoins, or gold, stocks, fiat money etc.) is ultimately determined by supply and demand. If you understand supply and demand, you understand prices.
So an important consideration is who's bidding for bitcoins, and who's asking for a price to sell them, and what prices to these parties consider reasonable.
Buyers (bid)
This is a diverse group of people, it may include people who use the small but fledgling bitcoin economy to buy coins to pay other people in them. But by far and large, it's probably a speculation driven market, people buy bitcoins in the hopes the value will rise.
The psychology speculative buying ends up being about a zero-sum game. Somebody buys, somebody sells, the overall activity neither adds or removes coins from the market, and hence when viewed over long periods (months/years) this activity is just white-noise.
This defines the demand, and demand rises and falls with bitcoin popularity and confidence. Some week confidence may be low, some it may be high.
Sellers (ask)
This roughly falls into two camps. The speculative sellers and the miners.
Speculative selling (that is sells of coins bought earlier) is the other half of the zero-sum game, it neither adds or removes coins overall, and is hence just white noise.
Freshly minted coins (by miners) which enter the market are the real driver of supply.
The limited and small constant supply myth
Every 10 minutes 50 new bitcoins are found. That is a fact, and if it strays from that, the difficulty adjusts to keep it there. If you look at it purely from the point of view of scarcity, this would seem a small (but nearly ignorable) inflationary influence.
This however would be an over-simplification. There are substantial amounts of mined coins held by people who've been mining them for the better part of a year. They've been hoarding these coins, and commonly I'd refer to this group as bitcoinionaires. Their actually supply capacity vastly exceeds the day to day supply of fresh coins.
Since these stockpiles are the real driver of the supply, it's important to understand when the miners/bitcoinonaires will sell and when they will not.
Mining economics
The mined bitcoins where obtained by the activity you call mining. This is neither an easy nor free way to get coins. It takes energy, room, time to setup, etc. There are constant costs attached to this (paying rent and electricity) as well as recoverable costs (buying hardware to do it) and unquantifiable costs (work rendered to make it all happen).
You can think of mining as a business that has expenses and profits. In order for that business to work, the constant expenses must be covered, the recoverable expenses must be recoverable, and the work invested must be repaid.
This all leads to a fairly straightforward calculation which goes something like this: You pay around 1000$ for one 1gh/s (one gigahash per second) in hardware. Running that hardware you pay about 2-3$/day/gh in energy. If you factor in rent of some or another form, you probably pay between 1-5$/day/gh in rent. If you also factor in resale value decay of the hardware you bought, you immediately lose about 20% upon buying the hardware, and around 30%/year.
As a business you probably plan to run your miner for more then half a year, so about 50% of the hardware cost has to be recovered in a reasonable time-frame, say 3 months. Which means there's a hardware recovery calculation that you should do that factors in at about 2$/day/gh
If you sum that all up, you get a running cost of mining that is around 5-10$/day/gh.
One gigahash will get you about 1.2btc/day at current difficulty, which is at current prices somewhere around 17-20$.
It is fairly obvious that your expenses need to be lower then your profits. If they are not, what happens?
Difficulty
You may have heard about difficulty, in essence it is a constant value (for 2 weeks) that aims to keep the rate of fresh coins at about 50coins/10minutes. Obviously, the more difficult it gets, the less coins 1 gh/s will mint, and the more difficult the economy of a mining business becomes.
miner psychology
Since you can't simply acquire and sell hardware capacity on a dime (it takes weeks and months to do it), and since you will need months to recover your boot costs, miner selling is out of necessity a long-term affair.
So what can a miner do when the price of btcs falls below their operational cost?
bitcoinionaire psychology
If prices go down and you sit on a big pile of coins, you lose wealth. Nobody likes loosing wealth, I don't like it, you don't like it, the bitcoinionaires don't like it.
In order to become a bitcoinionaire you need to be a hoarder. If you wouldn't hoard, you wouldn't have tens of thousands of bitcoins. A hoarder essentially never likes letting go of his stash. You get rid of as little of your stash as possible to keep your risk and costs in a reasonable balance. Which means, these fat-cats depicted in the picture above, they didn't sell you all they had, not even a fraction. They sold you just about as much as they where personally willing to sacrifice. This means that they're still having the majority of their wealth in the game, and they absolutely do not want to see that devalued to zero.
I've talked to a bunch of these very decent folks, and their sentiment is that they're in for the long haul. True they'll sell "big" positions occasionally, but they keep the majority of their assets stashed away.
If you're expecting the miners/bitcoinionaires to suddenly explode with supply at lowering prices, you're most likely mistaken.
the difficulty/price correlation
For the reasons outlined above, there's a very simple correlation. If prices go down and difficulty goes up, by far and large supply dries out.
However lower prices drive demand (in bitcoin volume) up, because as the price goes down, the buying power (in $/btc) of the would-be buyers increases.
And if the market self-balancing fails, then the difficulty adjust will step in once enough miners have given up.
In sum these dynamics lead to deflation. Since difficulty and hardware turnover moves at a much slower pace then prices, prices are far more likely to adjust to difficulty then the other way around in the long term.
What does all of this mean?
Keep a cool head, and don't let the market fool you. Trust your fundamentals, technicals and sentiment analysis, and tightly control your risk only to what you personally can afford to lose.
If you buy in a mania or sell in a panic (we've see both the past 2 weeks), you're probably going to lose (or diminish your profits).
Study bitcoin and what drives it carefully and come to your own conclusion. Adjust your strategy carefully and maybe, one day a couple years from now, you can be a bitcoinionaire. If not, life is full of other opportunities, so just pick yourself up and try the next.
So chill everyone, and have a good time :)
submitted by pyalot to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How to value a bitcoin - YouTube Is Bitcoin Dead Factors that Determine the Price of Bitcoin? How to Use Bitcoin Calculator Who sets the Bitcoin price?  Bitcoin price differences ...

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How to value a bitcoin - YouTube

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